پارازیتوییدهای شفیره مگس گلرنگ Acanthiophilus helianthi (Diptera: Tephritidae) در مزارع گلرنگ کهگیلویه

نویسنده

بخش بررسی آفات مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی یاسوج

چکیده

گلرنگ، Carthamus tinctorius L. یک محصول دانه روغنی مهم با اهمیت رو به رشد در بسیاری از کشورها در سراسر جهان است. مگس گلرنگ Acanthiophilus helianthi Rossi (Diptera:Tephritidae) یکی از مخرب ترین آفات گیاه گلرنگ در سراسر مناطق گلرنگ کاری می باشد. مبارزه با این آفت عمدتاً با استفاده از حشره کشهای طیف وسیع انجام می شود که می تواند باعث عوارض سوئی بر سلامت انسان و اکوسیستم مزارع گلرنگ گردد. از آنجا که لازمه تکوین برنامه مدیریت تلفیقی هر آفتی داشتن آگاهی کامل از بیولوژی، اکولوژی، دینامیسم جمعیت، آستانه زیان اقتصادی، شناسایی و ارزیابی عوامل مبارزه بیولوژیک در هر اکوسیستمی است لذا در این پژوهش پارازیتوییدهای مرحله شفیرگی مگس گلرنگ طی سالهای 1388 تا 1390 شناسایی گردید و پتانسیل طبیعی آنها در کنترل آفت در نسل ها و مناطق مختلف کهگیلویه در دو سال آخر مقایسه گردید. حشرات کامل پارازیتوییدهای شفیره از پرورش آزمایشگاهی شفیره های خارج شده از درون  غوزه های آلوده گلرنگ استحصال شد. درصد پارازیتیسم از نسبت تعداد پارازیتوییدها به مجموع پارازیتوییدها و مگس ها محاسبه شد. 10 گونه پارازیتویید شفیره به شرح زیر به دست آمد:
Adontomerus crassipes (Boucek,1982), Microdontomenus annulatus (Masi, 1899), (Torymidae); Bracon hebetor (Say, 1836), Bracon luteator (Spinola 1808), (Braconidae); Eurytoma acroptilae (Zerova, 1986),(Eurytomidae); Pronotalia carlinarum (Szelenyi and Erdos 1951),(Eulophidae); Ormyrus orientalis (Walker, 1871), (Ormyridae); Isocolus tinctorius (Melika and Gharaei, 2006), (Cynipidae) and Colotrechnus viridis (Masi, 1921) and Pteromalus sp. (Pteromalidae).
بر اساس این بررسی میزان پارازیتیسم از 13 تا 33  درصد با میانگین 1 ± 23 درصد متغیر بود. مقایسه میانگین های درصد پارازیتیسم شفیره نشان داد که اختلاف معنی داری در سطح 5 درصد در بین مناطق و نسلهای مختلف آفت وجود ندارد. بیشترین میزان پارازیتیسم در نسل اول تمام مناطق در سال 1389 و  نسل سوم در سال 1390 مشاهده شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Pupal hymenopterous parasitoids of Acanthiophilus helianthi (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Kohgiluyeh Safflower farms

نویسنده [English]

  • Karim SAEIDI
Department of Plant Protection, Agricultural Research Center of Yasouj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Safflower capsule fly, Acanthiophilus helianthi Rossi (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a key pest of safflower in Kohgiloyeh (Southwest, Iran). It is mainly controlled through application of broad-spectrum insecticides, which can adversely affect safflower farms ecosystem and consequently human health. Since a first step in setting up an IPM program is to assess the biological control agents within the ecosystem, so in this research work the pupal parasitoid complex of Safflower Capsule Fly (SCF) on safflower was identified, and its natural potential in controlling the pest compared for different generations and in different locations in Kohgiloyeh during 2010-2011. Adults of the pupal parasitoids of SCF were recorded from laboratory-reared pupae, which had been collected on damaged small flower heads of the first generation and large flower heads of the second and the third generations. Rate (%) of parasitism on A. helianthi pupae was estimated as the number of parasitoids over the total count of parasitoids and flies. Ten pupal parasitoids of the host were found:  Bracon hebetor, Bracon luteator, (Braconidae); Isocolus tinctorious (Cynipidae); Pronotalia carlinarum (Eulophidae); Eurytoma acroptilae (Eurytomidae); Ormyrus orientalis (Ormyridae); Colotrechnus viridis, Pteromalus sp. (Pteromalidae) and Adontomerus crassipes, Microdontomenus annulatus (Torymidae). Total parasitism varied from 1 to 16.8%, with an average of 7.7% as revealed through the present study. A comparison of the means of the pupal parasitism rate showed a significant difference at 5% level between different generations and localities. The highest rate of parasitism occurred in the first generation in all localities, as well as in years.
Safflower capsule fly, Acanthiophilus helianthi Rossi (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a key pest of safflower in Kohgiloyeh (Southwest, Iran). It is mainly controlled through application of broad-spectrum insecticides, which can adversely affect safflower farms ecosystem and consequently human health. Since a first step in setting up an IPM program is to assess the biological control agents within the ecosystem, so in this research work the pupal parasitoid complex of Safflower Capsule Fly (SCF) on safflower was identified, and its natural potential in controlling the pest compared for different generations and in different locations in Kohgiloyeh during 2010-2011. Adults of the pupal parasitoids of SCF were recorded from laboratory-reared pupae, which had been collected on damaged small flower heads of the first generation and large flower heads of the second and the third generations. Rate (%) of parasitism on A. helianthi pupae was estimated as the number of parasitoids over the total count of parasitoids and flies. Ten pupal parasitoids of the host were found:  Bracon hebetor, Bracon luteator, (Braconidae); Isocolus tinctorious (Cynipidae); Pronotalia carlinarum (Eulophidae); Eurytoma acroptilae (Eurytomidae); Ormyrus orientalis (Ormyridae); Colotrechnus viridis, Pteromalus sp. (Pteromalidae) and Adontomerus crassipes, Microdontomenus annulatus (Torymidae). Total parasitism varied from 1 to 16.8%, with an average of 7.7% as revealed through the present study. A comparison of the means of the pupal parasitism rate showed a significant difference at 5% level between different generations and localities. The highest rate of parasitism occurred in the first generation in all localities, as well as in years.
Safflower capsule fly, Acanthiophilus helianthi Rossi (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a key pest of safflower in Kohgiloyeh (Southwest, Iran). It is mainly controlled through application of broad-spectrum insecticides, which can adversely affect safflower farms ecosystem and consequently human health. Since a first step in setting up an IPM program is to assess the biological control agents within the ecosystem, so in this research work the pupal parasitoid complex of Safflower Capsule Fly (SCF) on safflower was identified, and its natural potential in controlling the pest compared for different generations and in different locations in Kohgiloyeh during 2010-2011. Adults of the pupal parasitoids of SCF were recorded from laboratory-reared pupae, which had been collected on damaged small flower heads of the first generation and large flower heads of the second and the third generations. Rate (%) of parasitism on A. helianthi pupae was estimated as the number of parasitoids over the total count of parasitoids and flies. Ten pupal parasitoids of the host were found:  Bracon hebetor, Bracon luteator, (Braconidae); Isocolus tinctorious (Cynipidae); Pronotalia carlinarum (Eulophidae); Eurytoma acroptilae (Eurytomidae); Ormyrus orientalis (Ormyridae); Colotrechnus viridis, Pteromalus sp. (Pteromalidae) and Adontomerus crassipes, Microdontomenus annulatus (Torymidae). Total parasitism varied from 1 to 16.8%, with an average of 7.7% as revealed through the present study. A comparison of the means of the pupal parasitism rate showed a significant difference at 5% level between different generations and localities. The highest rate of parasitism occurred in the first generation in all localities, as well as in years.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biological control
  • Safflower
  • Safflower capsule fly
  • Iran
  • Kohgiloyeh
  • parasitoid