عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
The wheat bug, Eurygaster integriceps (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae), is one of the major wheat pests causing high yield loss in terms of wheat production in the Iran. Morphometric differentiations may explain biogeographic distinctions among populations of a given species. The shape variations of female and male adults were evaluated by 12 morphometric indexes. Sampling was conducted in May and July of 2012 in Kurdistan Province. 30 samples of female adults and 30 samples of male adults were sampled from each of selected areas (sum 600 samples from 10 areas). Results showed that female adults divided to three clusters. Female adults were larger than male adults. Female population collected from Ghorve area had the maximum length (12.11±0.05) and width (7.64±0.03) of body, length (3.3±0.02) and width (7.27±0.02) of pronotum and width of scutellum (5.25±0.02 mm). Results of discriminant analysis (DFA) showed that female adults can differentiate populations (36.7%) more that male adults (32.7%). cluster analysis differentiated female and male populations completely by UPGMA method.
Alpatov, W. W. 1929. Biometrical studies on variation and races of the honey bee Apis mellifera L. Quarterly Review of Biology 4: 1–58.
Anthony M., Lumansoc J. & Demayo C. G. 2010. Variability in head shapes in three populations of the Rice Bug Leptocorisa oratorius (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Alydidae). Egyptian Journal of biological sciences, 3 (1): 173 – 184.
Atchley, W.R., Rutledge, J.J. & Cowley, D.E. 1981. Genetic components of size and shape.ΙΙ.Multivariate pattern in the rat and mouse skull. Evolution, 35: 1037-1055.
Bahrami, N., Rajabi, G. & Kamali, k. 2002. Economocal injury level of Eurygaster integriceps in the wheat field in the Kermanshah Province. Applied Entomology and Phytopathology, 70(2): 29-44 (In Persian).
Bookstein, F.L. 1982. Foundations of morphometrics. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematic, 13: 451-470.
Bryantseva, E. V., 1973. Morphological features of different geographical population of the noxious pentatomid. Trudy viesoyuznogo Rastenii, 37: 95-103 (In Russian).
Bumpus, H.C. 1998. The elimination of the unfit as illustrated by the introduced sparrow Passer domesticus. Woods Hole. 11: 209-226.
Critchley, B.R. 1998. Literature review of sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Put. (Hemiptera, Scutelleridae). Crop Protection,17: 271–287.
Cruz, L. D, Anthony, M. & Brrion A. T. 2011. Geometric morphometric analysis of the head, pronotum and genitalia of the rice black bug associated with selected rice types. Egyptian journal of biological sciences, 4(1): 21-31 (2011).
Daly, H.V. & Balling, S.S. 1978. Identification of Africanized honey bee in the western hemisphere by discriminant analysis. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 51: 857-869.
Dujardin, J.P., Steindel, M., Chavez, T., Mart´ınez, E. & Schofield, C.J., 1999. Changes in the sexual dimorphism of Triatominae in the transition from natural to artificial habitats. Memoirs of Institute Oswaldo Cruz, 94: 565–569.
Hepburn, H. R., Radloff, S. E. & Oghiakhe, S. 2000. Mountain honeybees of Africa. Journal of Apidologie, 31(2): 205–221.
Hepburn, H. R., Radloff, S. E., Verma, S. & Verma, L. R. 2001. Morphometric analysis of Apis cerana populations in the southern Himalayan region. Journal of Apidologie 32(5): 435–447.
Javahery, M. 1995. A technical review of Sunn pest (Heteroptera: Pentatomoidea). FAO. Reg Of Near East, 27: 260–272.
Kinaci, E., & Kinaci, G. 2004. Quality and yield losses due to sunn pest (Hemiptera:Scutelleridae) in different wheat types in Turkey. Field Crops Research,89: 187-195.
Lessie, M. L., Dela, C. M., Anthony, J. T., Alberto, T. B., Ravindra, J., Leocadio, S. S. & Cesar, G. D. 2011. Geometric Morphometric Analysis of the Head, Pronotum and Genitalia of the Rice Black Bug Associated with Selected Rice Types. Egyptian Academic Journal of Biological Sciences, 4 (1): 21-31.
Mattu, V. K. & Verma, L. R. 1984. Morphometric studies on the Indian honeybee, Apis cerana indica F. – effect of seasonal variations. Journal of Apidologie, 15(1): 63–74.
Mohaghegh, J., 2005. Morphometric Analysis of two populations of Eurygaster manra in Iran. Journal of Entomological Society of Iran, 25(1): 97-105.
Mutanen, M. 2006. Genital variation in a dimorphic moth Selenia tetralunaria (Lepidoptera, Geometridae). Journal of Biological Systems, 87: 297-307.
Popov, C., Barbulescu, A. & Vonica, L. 1996. Population dynamics and management of sunn pest in Romania: In Sunn Pest and Their Control in the Near East (eds. Miller, R. H. and Morse, J. G.). FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper 138, 165 pp. Food & Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
Radloff, S. E., Hepburn, H. R., & Bangay L. 2003. Quantitative analysis of intercolonial and intracolonial morphometric variance in honeybees, Apis mellifera and Apis cerana. Journal of Apidologie, 34: 339–352
Radloff, S. E., Hepburn, H. R., Hepburn, C., Fuchs, S., Otis, G.W., Sein, M. M., Aung, H. L., Pham, H. T., Tam, D. Q., Nuru, A. M. & Ken, T. 2005. Multivariate morphometric analysis of Apis cerana of southern mainland Asia. Journal of Apidologie, 36(1): 127–139.
Sarafrazi, A. 2001. Molecular and morphological structures and host associations of the Iranian sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps (Heteroptera: Scutelleridae) populations.Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wales, Cardiff. UK.
Soose, E. 1954. Effect of temperature on the wing index and chitin colour of the honeybee. Archive f¨ur Bienenkunde, 31: 49–66.
Tan, K., Hepburn, H. R., Radloff, S. E., Fuchs, S., Fan, X., Zhang, L. J. & Yang, M. X. 2008. Multivariate morphometric analysis of the Apis cerana of China. Journal of Apidologie, 39(3): 343–353.
Verma, L. R., Mattu, V. K. & Daly, H. V. 1994. Multivariate morphometrics of the Indian honeybee in the northwest Himalayan region. Journal of Apidologie 25: 203–22.
Zahiri, R., Sarafrazi, A., Salehi, L. & Kunkel, J. 2006. A geometric study on population of Rice Stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Lep.:Crambidae) in northern Iran. Zoology in the Middle East, 38: 73-84.