عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
Efficacy of Iminoctadine Tris (Belkute® WP 40%) and Sulphur (Sulfolac® WG 80%) in controlling of cucumber powdery mildew disease agent (Golovinomyces cichoracearum) was studied at 2011-2012 in Karaj under field conditions. Treatments included different doses of Belkute and Sulfolac as the target and Karatane (Dinocap® EC 35%) and Sulphur (Thiovit® WG 80%) as the reference fungicides along with the no spraying control. Trials were done at Complete Randomized Design with 9 treatments and 4 replications. For each plot 10 supposed areas (50×50 Cm) selected randomly and labeled. Foliar application of fungicides were made at the onset of the early symptoms in the treated plots and followed until control plots got high infection at 5, 7, 10 and 14 days intervals. Assessment of the effects of treatments in terms of decreasing disease severity index (DSI) assigned by foliage protection percentage (FPP) was performed using modified Horsfall and Barrat method by giving 1-7 marks, before each spraying. The two final assessing was done with 14 days intervals after the last spraying. Area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) and efficacy of treatments calculated compared to control using five separate disease assessments data. Analysis of variance done in Randomized Complete Blocks Design (RCBD) for each assessments, AUDPC and efficacy by SAS software, and means were compared with Duncan multiple range tests. The results of analysis of variance revealed that there were significant differences among treatments in DSI in all assessments, AUDPC and efficacy (P<0.05 and P<0.01) for two years. Comparison of the means showed that Belkute 0.75 and 1 kg/ha had the best effects in disease control and decreased disease as 89.46% and 90.74% compared to control respectively.
Ahmed, S.M., 2010. Effects of salicylic acid, ascorbic acid and two fungicides in control of early blight disease and some physiological components of two varieties of potatoes. Journal of Agricultural Research, 36 (2): 220-237.
Anonymous, 1987. Pesticide fact sheet number 65: Dinocap. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs. Washington, DC. USA. Available from URL: http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/factsheets/ (Accessed 26-October-2014).
Anonymous, 1989. Dinocap: Notice of intent to cancel registrations. Conclusion of Special Review. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Federal Register, 54 (23): 5908-5920.
Anonymous, 1993. Report of the twenty-second session of the codex committee on Pesticide residues. Available from URL: https://www.google.com/?gws_rd=ssl#q= Codex+Alimentations+Commission+1993+Dinocap+fungicid&spell=1 (Accessed 26-October-2014).
Anonymous, 2009. Iminoctadine tris (albesilate). Pesticide properties database, University of Hertfordshire, Available from URL: http://www.sitem.herts.ac. uk/aeru/ppdb/en/Reports/2397.htm (Accessed 26-October-2014).
Anonymous. 2012. Statistical fact sheet on agricultural products. Economic and programing aide in communication and information technology of the Ministry of Agricultural Jihad. Year 2011-12, Vol. 1. (in Persian)
Anonymous, 2014a. Thiovit Jet registration documents in UK. Available from URL: http://www.plantprotection.co. uk/HTML/.../.. %5CProd%5CProd2611.htm (Accessed 26-October-2014).
Anonymous, 2014b. Sulfolac® WG, fungicide for control of powdery mildew and rust diseases on apples, stone fruit, grapes, tomatillos and vegetables. Available from URL:http://www.adriacp.co.nz/Technical%20Brochures/Sulfolac%20WG.pdf (Accessed 26-October-2014).
Azimi, H. 2012. Effect of kresoxim methyl and tetraconazole fungicides in combination with potassium bicarbonate for controlling powdery mildew disease of cucurbits under greenhouse conditions. Applied Research in Plant Protection, 1 (1): 57-65. (in Persian with English abstract)
Azimi, H. 2013a. Investigation on Belkute WP 40% effects on powdery mildew of cucumber. Agricultural Scientific Information & Documentation Center (ASIDC), 43996. (in Persian with English abstract)
Azimi, H. 2013b. Investigation on Sulfolac (Sulphur 80 WG) effects on powdery mildew of cucumber. Agricultural Scientific Information & Documentation Center (ASIDC), 44139. (in Persian with English abstract)
Azimi, H. 2014. Study of iminoctadine tris (Belkute WP 40%) effects on powdery mildew of cucumber. Proceedings of the 21th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, 23-26 August 2014, Urmia, Iran. P. 73.
Azimi, H., Shakeri M. 2010. Investigation on effects of some new fungicides on cucumber powdery mildew. Proceedings of the 19th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, 31 July-3 August 2010. Tehran, Iran, Vol. 2, P. 879.
Azimi, H., Shakeri, M., Safaei, D. 2008. Effects of bicarbonate-potassium and spraying intervals on powdery mildew of cucurbits. Proceedings of the 18th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, 24-27 August 2008. Hamadan, Iran, Vol. 2, P. 275.
Babai Ahari, A., Khoshkalam, N. & Valizadeh, M. 2012. Identification of cucumber powdery mildew agents and determination of their race in East Azarbaijan province. Plant Protection (Scientific Journal of Agriculture), 35 (1): 55-68. (in Persian with English abstract)
Batista, T.J.J., Rezende, R., Terumi Itako, A., Lourenço de Freitas, S. & Antônio Frizzone, J. 2011. Drip fungigation in early blight control of tomato, Acta Scientiarum. Agronomy Maringá, 33 (1): 9-14.
Behdad, E. 1981. Disease of Field Crops in Iran. Neshate Esfahan, Iran. (in Persian)
Bélanger, R. & Labbe, C. 2002. Control of powdery mildew without chemicals: prophylactic & biological alternatives for horticultural crops, Pp. 256-267, In: Bélanger, R.R., Bushnell, W.R., Dik, A.J. & Carver, T.L.W. (Eds.), The Powdery Mildews. A Comprehensive Treatise, APS. St. Paul, Minnesota.
Braun, U., Cook, R.T., Inman, A.J., & Shin, H.D. 2002. The taxonomy of the powdery mildew fungi. Pp. 13-25, In: Bélanger, R.R., Bushnell, W.R., Dik, A.J. & Carver, T.L.W. (Eds.), The Powdery Mildews. A Comprehensive Treatise, APS. St. Paul, Minnesota.
Campbell, C.L. & Madden, L.V. 1990. Introduction to Plant Disease Epidemiology. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
Dik, A.J. & Albajes, R. 1999. Principles of epidemiology, population biology, damage relationships & integrated control of diseases & pests, Pp. 69-81, In: Albajes, R., Lodovica Gullino, M., van Lenteren, J.C. & Elad, Y. (Eds.), Integrated Pest & Disease Management in Greenhouse Crops. Developments in Plant Pathology, Vol. 14, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, the Netherlands.
Ellis, B.W. & Bradley, F.M. 1992. The Organic Gardener’s Handbook of Natural Insect and Disease Control. Rodale Press, Emmaus, PA.
Esfandiari, E. 1947. Field crop and fruit trees diseases in subtropical regions of north of Iran. Pest and disease research institute (ed.) 5: 1-21.
Hector, G., Palenius, N., Hopkins, D. & Daniel, J.C.2006.Powdery Mildew of Cucurbits in Florida. U.S.A Department of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A. & M. University Cooperative Extension Program, & Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Available from URL: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/HS/HS32100.pdf (Accessed 26-October-2014).
Horsfall, J.G. & Barratt, R.W. 1945. An improved grading system for measuring plant disease. Phytopathology, 35: 655 (Abstract).
Hosseini-Nia, A., Edrisi, B., Etaaty, M., & Kazemi-Siahooi, G.R. 2008. Simultaneous control of rose powdery mildew and rose spider mites by neem (Azadirachta indica Adr. Juss ) seed oil, sulfur and dinocap. Pajouhesh and Sazandegi, 78: 34-40. (in Persian with English abstract)
Jahn, M., Munger, H.M. & McCreight, J.D. 2002. Breeding cucurbit crops for powdery mildew resistance. Pp. 239-248, In: Bélanger, R.R., Bushnell, W.R., Dik, A.J. and Carver, T.L.W. (Eds.), The Powdery Mildews. A Comprehensive Treatise, APS. St. Paul, Minnesota.
Jamali-Zavareh, A.H., Sharifi Tehrani, A., Hejarood, G.H.A., Zad, S.J., Mohamadi, M. & Talebi Jahromi, K.H. 2004. An investigation of the effectiveness of acibenzolar– s –methyl for the control of cucumber powdery mildew. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Science, 35 (2): 285-292. (in Persian with English abstract)
Keinath, A. P., & DuBose, V. B. 2012. Controlling powdery mildew on cucurbit rootstock seedlings in the greenhouse with fungicides and biofungicides. Crop Protection, 42: 338-344.
Kiristakova, E., Lebeda, A. & Sedlkova, B. 2009. Species spectra, distribution and host range of cucurbit powdery mildews in the Czech Republic, and in some other European and Middle Eastern countries. Phytoparasitica, 37 (4): 337-350.
Larson, B.C., Mossler, M.A. & Nesheim, O.N. 2014. Florida Crop/Pest Management Profiles: Cucumbers. Electronic Data Information Source of UF/IFAS Extension (EDIS), CIR 1255. Available from URL: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/. (Accessed 26-October-2014).
McCallan, S.E.A. 1948. The nature of the fungicidal action of copper and sulfur. The Botanical Review, 15 (9): 629-641.
McGrath, M.T. 1997. Powdery Mildew of Cucurbits Fact Sheet Page: 730-732. Department of Plant Pathology, Long Island Horticultural Research and Extension Center, Cornell University. Available from URL: http://nysipm.cornell.edu/factsheets/vegetables/cucu/pm.pdf (Accessed 26-October-2014).
McGrath, M.T. 2005. Guidelines for Managing Cucurbit Powdery Mildew with FungicidesDepartment of Plant Pathology, Cornell University. Long Island & Horticultural Research & Extension Center. Available from URL: http://vegetablemdonline.ppath.cornell.edu/NewsArticles/Cuc_PM_Update.htm (Accessed 26-October-2014).
McGrath, M.T. & Zitter, A. 2000. Guidelines for Managing Powdery Mildew and Other Diseases of Cucurbits, Department of Plant Pathology, Long Island Horticultural Research and Extension Center, Cornell University.Available from URL:http://vegetablemdonline.ppath.cornell.edu/NewsArticles/PMCucurbits.htm(Accessed 26-October-2014).
McGrath, M.T., & Shishkoff, N. 1999. Evaluation of biocompatible products for managing cucurbit powdery mildew. Crop Protection, 18 (7): 471-478.
Mossler, M.A. & Nesheim, O.N. 2005. Florida Crop/Pest Management Profile: Squash, Electronic Data Information Source of UF/IFAS Extension (EDIS), CIR 1265. Available from URL: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ (Accessed 26-October-2014).
Sheykhi, A., Najafi, H., Abbasi, S., Saber, F. & Rashid, M. 2012. The Pesticide Guide of Iran. Paytakht (ed.), Tehran, Iran. (in Persian)
Tweedt, B.G. 1981. Inorganic sulfur as a fungicide. Residue Reviews, 78: 43-68.