عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
The use of botanical insecticide instead of chemical insecticide is one way to preserving the enviroment. In this research, the effect of three concentrations of the botanical insecticide, Tondexir (pepper extract), on two natural enemies of the pistachio psyllid, the first and fourth instar larvae and adult of the Coccinellid Predator Oenopia conglobata. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and the pupa and adult of the Parasitic Wasp Psyllaephagus pistaciae (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) were investigated. A topical bioassay was used in laboratory conditions. Two field experiments were conducted with Tondexir and acetamiprid on mummy pupae of Parasitoeid in completely randomized block design in 2010 and 2011 In Rafsanjan, Iran. On chemical insecticide, acetamiprid, have been used in comparison with Tondexir. The results showed that Tondexir is less effective than acetamiprid on two natural enemies of Pistachio psyllid. Consistent with the IOBC, Tondexir was categorized as being harmless on first instar larvae, harmless on fourth instar larvae, harmless on adult Predator and slightly harmful on adult PW. Acetamiprid was categorized as moderately harmful, slightly harmful and slightly harmful on the above stages of two insects. The result of field experiments showed that two insecticides were categorized as harmless on mummy of Parasitoid. Overall, the results have shown that Tondexir has less effect than chemical insecticides on two natural enemies and can be used in pistachio orchards.
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