واکنش بیماری شانکر سیتوسپورایی درختان سیب به عناصر غذایی ازت و پتاس

نویسندگان

چکیده

در یک ارزیابی برای تعیین نقش عناصر غذایی ازت و پتاس در بروز و توسعه­ی سیتوسپورای همراه علائم شانکر درختان سیب در منطقه سمیرم، تعداد 52 باغ سیب گلدن دلیشز ­آلوده و سالم به‌طور تصادفی انتخاب گردید. در هر باغ 5 درخت به تصادف انتخاب و نمونه‌برداری  از برگ و خاک (30-0 و 60-30 سانتی‌متری) آن‌ها انجام شد. در آزمایشگاه پس از تهیه‌ی نمونه مرکب، عناصر غذایی ماکرو و میکروی آن‌ها به روش هضم مرطوب اندازه‌گیری شد. اعداد به دست آمده به روش انحراف از درصد بهینه در باغ‌های آلوده نسبت به غلظت مرجع در باغ‌های سالم محاسبه و تفسیر گردید. طی این تفسیر باغ‌های آلوده به شدت دچار کمبود کلسیم، پتاسیم و زیاد بود ازت بودند. تحقیقات تکمیلی در خصوص تعیین نقش عناصر پتاسیم و ازت روی سیتوسپورای همراه درختان سیب در شرایط هیدروپونیک روی نهال‌های دو ساله سیب رقم گلدن دلیشز و به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی و با دو فاکتور (16 تیمار) و چهار تکرار انجام شد. بعد از 6 هفته نهال‌ها با جدایه با بیماری‌زایی بالا مایه‌کوبی شدند در غالب تیمارها در اواخر بهار و طول تابستان بافت کالوس در اطراف محل مایه‌کوبی تکرارها تشکیل شد اما تهاجم به بافت‌های سالم در پاییز شروع شد و شانکرها منجر به مرگ غالب نهال‌ها شدند.  نتایج به دست آمده نشان داد که در تیمارهای N0K0, N0K115, N0K230, N0K345, N105K230. N105K345  فقط بافت کالوس اطراف زخم‌ها تشکیل شد و هیچ‌کدام از درختان خشک نشدند. در تیمارهای K0N105, K0N210, N105K115, N210K230, N210K345, N315K345 ، %25 درختان خشک شدند و در تیمارهای K0N345, N210K115, N315K230، %50 تکرارها، در حالی که در تیمار N315K115 ، %100 درختان از بین رفتند. نتایج بیانگر آن است که با افزایش مصرف میزان ازت و کاهش پتاسیم، درصد خشکیدگی در تیمارها متغیر و روند افزایشی دارد. این نتایج  با نتایج به دست آمده از خاک و برگ درختان سالم و آلوده در شرایط طبیعی مشابه است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Reaction of Apple Cytospora Canker to Nutrient Nitrogen and Potassium

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ahmad Heidarian
  • Masoud Tadayon nejad
چکیده [English]

In an assessment for determination the role of nitrogen and potassium on incidence and development of Cytospora spp. associated with apple trees, 52 Golden delicious gardens randomized selected and sampled from  leaves and soils (0-30 , 30-60 cm deep) in Junuary. Sample compound prepaired in laboratoary, macro and micro elements based on Wet Digestion Method analyzed. The results were subjected to analyzed and required discussious, based on Deviation from Optimum Percentage (DOP) method in infected gardens to recent index concentration in non infected ones. Potassium deficiency and high level of nitrogen were observed in infected gardens. Research on the role of these elements were performed on the fungus.This part of invastigation was done on seedlings of the two-years-old Golden Delicious apple cultivars, in factorial randomized block design with two factors (16 treatments) and four replications. After 6 weeks, seedlings were inoculated with high virulence isolate. In most treatments callus tissue was formed around the site of inoculation in late spring and along summer. But the invasion of health tissues began in the fall, and cankers caused seedlings were dead. The results showed that only tissue callus was formed around the replications: N0K0, N0K115, N0K230, N0K345, N105K230. N105K345, while none of the treatmens were dried. In treatments K0N105, K0N210, N105K115, N210K230, N210K345, N315K345,  25% of replications were dried. In treatments K0N345, N210K115, N315K230, % 50 repetitions, while in treatment N315K115, % 100 repetitions were dried. It's characterized by increasing potassium and reduce of nitrogen in treatments, percentage of deaths variable and it's  increasing. This results were the same results obtained from health and infected apple trees leaves and soils.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • apple
  • Cytospora canker
  • Cytospora sp
  • nitrogen
  • Pottassium
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