عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
In Iran, as in many other countries pesticide usage is considered as one of the main methods of pest control. Although pesticides are effective in increasing the yield, its improper use can cause serious health and environmental impacts. Pesticides are one of the factors known or suspected to cause cancer and hormonal disorders in humans and in risk evaluation programs of carcinogenic agents have been regarded as an important factor. In a few countries and the international communities, there are several methods for the classification of carcinogenic agents. In this study, the registered pesticides in the country were investigated in terms of their potential carcinogenicity. The results showed that although none of the pesticides registered in the country fall in group A (carcinogenic to humans) based on EPA classification, But a number of pesticides are in the group B (likely to be carcinogenic to humans).These include butachlor, captan, chlorothalonil, cyproconazol, iprodion, maneb, mancozeb, propargite, zineb, thiodicarb, epoxiconazole, kresoximmethyl, permethrin, pirimicarb, pymetrozine, sulfosulfuron, tetraconazole, thiabendazole, thiacloprid, thiophanate methyl, diuron, diclofob methyl, acetochlor, hexythiazox, oxadiazon and oxyflurofen that
are currently used in Iran. A number of registered pesticides in the country fall in
Group C (suggestive evidence of carcinogenic potential) according to the EPA
classification like cypermethrin, dichlorvos, dimethoate, tebuconazole, malathion
and tetramethrin which are highly consumed in Iran. Certainly, Special attention
has to be paid to registration of new pesticides, and registered pesticides have to
be reviewed so as to have pesticides with low risk of carcinogenicity. Proper
Pesticides usage by the users so as to reduce the exposure rate of the applicators
and the crops to have a lower pesticides residue are also important.
Clapp, R. W., Jacobs, M. M. & Loechler, E. L. 2007. Environmental & occupational causes of cancer: new evidence 2005-2007. Lowell (MA): Lowell Center for Sustainable Production.
Cohn, B. A., Wolff, M. S., Cirillo, P. M., Sholtz, R. I. 2007. DDT and breast cancer in young women: new data on the significance of age at exposure. Environmental Health Perspective, 115:1406-14.
Dich, J. Zahm, S. H., Hanberg, A. & Admi, H. 1997. Pesticide and Cancer. Cancer Causes and Control, 8: 420-443.
Fenton, S. E. 2006. Endocrine disrupting compounds and mammary gland development: early exposure and later life consequences. Endocrinology, 147(Suppl):S18-S24.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 1986. International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides. Rome, Italy: 28.
Gibbs, H. J., Lees P. S. J., Pinsky, P F. & Rooney B. C. 2000. Lung cancer among workers in chromium chemical production. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 38:115-26.
Heidari, A. Torkamand, M. 2009. Insect Resistance to insecticides. Proceeding of the Congress on Half a Century of the Pesticide Usage in Iran. Tehran, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). 2009. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans: overall evaluations of carcinogenicity to humans, Group 2A Probably Carcinogenic to Humans [Internet]. Lyon (France): IARC [updated 2009 Mar 28; cited 2009 Nov 8]. Available from: http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/crthgr02a.php.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). 2012. Agents reviewed by the IARC monographs. Vol. 1-100A (by CAS number) [Internet]. Lyon (France): Available from: http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php.
McGlynn, K. A., Quraishi, S. M., Graubard, B. I., Weber, J. P., Rubertone M. V. & Erickson, R. L. 2008. Persistent organochlorine pesticides and risk of testicular germ cell tumors. Journal of the National Cancer Institutee, 7: 100(9):663-71.
National Toxicology Program (NTP). 2009. Listing Criteria. available from: http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/?objectid=47B37760-F1F6-975E-7C15022B9C93B5A6.
National Cancer Institute (NCI). 2003. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. Cancer and the environment: what you need to know, what you can do. NIH Pub. No. 03-2039. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health.
Pomati, F., Castiglioni, S., Zuccato, E., Fanelli, R., Vigetti, D. & Rossetti, C. 2006. Effects of a complex mixture of therapeutic drugs at environmental levels on human embryonic cells. Environmental Science Technology, 40(7):2442-7.
Rayner, J., L., Enoch, R. R. & Fenton, S. E. 2005. Adverse effects of prenatal exposure to atrazine during a critical period of mammary gland growth. Toxicology Science, 87:255-66.
Reuben, S. H. 2010. Reducing Environmental Cancer Risk. Annual report of national cancer institute. U. S. Department of heailh and human services.
Shen, H., Main, K. M., Virtanen, H. E., Damggard, I. N., Haavisto, A. M. & Kaleva, M. 2007. From mother to child: investigation of prenatal and postnatal exposure to persistent bioaccumulating toxicants using breast milk and placenta biomonitoring. Chemosphere, 67:S236-S262.
Spinelli, J. J., Ng, C. H., Weber, J. P., Connors, J. M., Gascoyne, R. D. & Lai, A. S. 2007. Organochlorines and Risk of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma. International Journal of Cancer, 121: 2767-75.
Stoker, T. E., Robinette, C. L. & Cooper, R. L. 1999. Maternal exposure to atrazine during lactation suppresses suckling-induced prolactin release and results in prostatitis in the adult offspring. Toxicology Science, 52:68-79.
U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). 2008. Pesticide Data Program [Internet]. Washington (DC): USDA [updated 2008 Dec 18; cited 2009 Jul 26]. Available from: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ams.fetchTemplateData.do?template=TemplateC&navID=PesticideDataProgram&rightNav1=PesticideDataProgram&topNav=&leftNav=&page=PesticideDataProgram&resultType=&acct=pestcddataprg
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (FAO). 2010. Pesticide product information system (PPIS) [Internet]. Washington (DC): EPA [updated 2010 Feb 8; cited 2010 Feb 14]. Available from: http://www.epa.gov/opppmsd1/PPISdata/.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2009. Atrazine interim reregistration eligibility decision (IRED) Q&A’s—January 2003 [Internet]. Washington (DC): EPA [updated 2008 Aug 23; cited 2009 Aug 24]. Available from: http://www.epa.gov/opp00001/factsheets/atrazine.htm.
Zheng, T., Holford, T., Mayne, S., Ward, B., Carter, D. & Owens, P. H. 1999. DDE and DDT in breast adipose tissue and risk of female breast cancer. American Journal Epidemiology, 150:453-8.