نوسانات فصلی جمعیت سفیده کوچک کلم Pieris rapae (Lep.: Pieridae) در مزارع کلم گل جنوب تهران

نویسندگان

چکیده

سفیده کوچک کلم (Linnaeus, 1758)(Lep.: Pieridae) Pieris rapae یکی از آفات مهم خانواده کروسیفر یا چلیپائیان (Brassicaceae) در منطقه شهریار، کهریزک و شهر ری بوده و در این مناطق هر ساله آثار خسارت این آفت روی برگ های گیاهان این خانواده دیده می شود. به منظور بررسی نوسانات فصلی جمعیت سفیده کلم، پنج منطقه از مناطق کلم گل کاری جنوب تهران قطعه ای به مساحت یک هکتار برای نمونه برداری انتخاب شد  و نمونه برداری هر 10 روز یکبار نمونه برداری انجام گرفت. بوته به عنوان واحد نمونه برداری در نظر گرفته شد و از هر مزرعه 20 بوته انتخاب شد و تمام مراحل مختلف رشدی آفت روی بوته شمارش شد. نتایج این بررسی نشان داد که مزرعه دانشگاه شاهد بیشترین تراکم تخم (60/5±91/18) و مزرعه پلائین کمترین تراکم تخم (04/4±53/16) را در طول فصل در بین مناطق مختلف داشتند. در مزرعه دانشگاه شاهد بیشترین تراکم تخم در طول فصل در سوم آبان ماه و کمترین تراکم تخم در 29 خرداد ماه دیده شد. در مزرعه پلائین بیشترین و کمترین میزان تخم به ترتیب در تاریخ های هفتم مهر و 29 خرداد ماه دیده شد. مزرعه جهان آباد (66/0±99/2) و مزرعه پلائین (10/0±41/0) به ترتیب بیشترین و کمترین تراکم لارو را در طول فصل در بین مناطق مختلف داشتند. در مزرعه جهان آباد بیشترین تراکم در طول فصل در سوم آبان هنگام برداشت و کمترین تراکم لارو در بیست و نهم خرداد ماه دیده شد. در مزرعه پلائین بیشترین و کمترین تراکم لارو به ترتیب در سوم آبان و 29 خرداد دیده شد. مزرعه کهریزک بیشترین (16/0±87/0) و مزرعه پلائین (05/0±19/0)، کمترین تراکم شفیره را در طول فصل در بین مناطق مختلف داشتند. در مزرعه کهریزک بیشترین تراکم شفیره در طول فصل در سوم آبان و کمترین تراکم شفیره در 29 خرداد ماه دیده شد. در مزرعه پلائین بیشترین تراکم شفیره در 22 مهر، سوم آبان ماه و کمترین تراکم شفیره در 29 خرداد و 11 تیر دیده شد. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که جمعیت آفت بر اساس تعداد لارو و شفیره در هر بوته بین مزرعه سم پاشی نشده با سایر مزارع دارای اختلاف معنی داری نیست.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Seasonal population fluctuations of the cabbage white butterfly, Pierisrapaein cauliflower fields of the South of Tehran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Gholamhosein Hasanshahi
  • Zahra Dousti
  • Fatemeh Jahan
  • Alireza Askarianzadeh
  • Jaber Karimi
  • Habib Abbasipur
چکیده [English]

The cabbage white butterfly, Pierisrapae (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lep.: Pieridae) is one of the most important pests of Cruciferous or Brassicaceaefamily plants in regions of Shahriar, Kahrizak and Sahr’e Ray and every year its damage can be seen on the leaves of these plants. In order to study the seasonal population fluctuation of P. rapae, One hectare cauliflower field in the middle of a large field was randomly selected in five regions of cauliflower fields in southof Tehran were chosen and sampled every 10 days. Each plant was presumed as a sampling unit and sample size was determined as 20 host plants and all eggs, larvae and pupa on the host plant were recorded. Results of this study showed that Jahanabad and Shahed fields had the highest egg density (18.91±5.60) and the lowest egg density (16.53±4.04) was seen in the Playin field during season. In the Shahed field, highest egg density occurred in June 19 and the lowest egg density was seen on October 25. In the Playin field, the highest and lowest egg density was seen on September 29 and June 19, respectively. In the Jahanabad field the highest (2.99±0.66) and lowest (0.41±0.10) larval density was occurred during the season among different regions. Highest density was observed in the Jahanabad field during the harvest time on October 25 and the lowest larval density was seen on June 19. The highest and lowest larval density was seen in the field of Playin  on 25rd October and 19th June, respectively. Kahrizak (0.87±0.16) and Playin (0.19±0.05) fields had the highest and lowest pupal density in different regions during the season. In the field of Kahrizak, highest pupal density was occurred on 25rd October and in the playin field, the lowest pupal density was seen on 19th June. In the Playin field, highest density of pupae was occurred on 14th October and 25rd October and the lowest density of pupae was observed on 19th June and 2th July, respectively. The results showed that number of larval and pupal stages based on units density, between all experimental regions and Shahed university station had not significant difference.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • population fluctuations
  • Pierisrapae
  • Cauliflower
  • Tehran
Aliyev, A.A.O. 1999. Fauna of the subfamily Ichneumoninae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) of Azerbaijan with new records. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 23: 1-12.

Capinera, J.L. 2001. Handbook of Vegetable Pests. Academic Press, New York.

Costea, G., Mustata, G.H., & Lozan, A. 2002. Role of Braconidae (Hymenoptera) in limitation of Lepidoptera cabbage pest’s populations in Romania. In: Melika, G. & Thuroczy, C. (Eds.), parasitic wasps: evolution, systematic, biodiversity and biological control. Agroinform, Budapest, pp: 391-395.

Farahbakhsh, Gh. 1961. List of important pests of agricultural crops and products. Ministry of Agriculture. No 1. Pp135 (in Persian).

Forster, R; 1991. Supervised control of lepidopterous pests in white Cabbage. Messeweg 11-12, 3300 Braun chewing, Germany : 126-129.

Golizadeh, A. 2008. Thermal Requirements and Population Dynamics of Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lep., Plutellidae) in Tehran Region. Ph. D. Thesis, Tarbiat Modares University, (In Persian with English summary)

Hafez_Khiabani, H. 1965. Identify and control of small cabbage whit. M. Sc. Thesis, Tehran University, Iran, (in Persian with English abstract).

Hasanshahi, G. 2012. Natural Parasitism of the diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lep.: Plutellidae) in the Cauliflower Fields of the South of Tehran. M. Sc. Thesis, Shahed University, Iran (in Persian with English abstract).

Hasanshahi, G., Abbasipour, H., Askarianzadeh, A., karimi, J., Dusty, Z., Jahan, F. & Esmailiy-Vardenjani, M. 2013a. Seasonal Population Fluctuations of the Cabbage White Butterfly, Pieris rapae (L.) (Lep.: Pieridae) and Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella (Lep.: Plutellidae) on Cauliflower Cultivars. Journal of Plant Protection. (In press).

Hasanshahi, G., Abbasipour, H., Jahan, F., Askew, R. & Escolà, A.R. 2013b. New record of Brachymeria albicrus (Klug) (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) a pupal parasitoid of the cabbage white butterfly, Pieris rapae (Linnaeus, 1758) from Iran. Journal of biological control. (In press).

Hasanshahi, G., Abbasipour, H., Jussila, R., Jahan, F. & Dousty, Z. 2013c. Host report of Hyposoter clausus (Brischke, 1880) (Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae), a larval parasitoid of the cabbage white butterfly, Pieris rapae from cauliflower fields in Tehran. Journal of BioControl in Plant Protection. (In press).

Hasanshahi, G., Yazdanpanah, A., Dusty, Z., Askarianzadeh, A., Abbasipour, H. & karimi, J. 2012. Population density of the cabbage white butterfly, Pieris rapae (L.) (Lep.: Pieridae) on different cultivars of cauliflower in the south of Tehran. International Conference of Environment and Plant Production, pp54-58.

Isaaks, E.H. & Srivastava, R.M. 1989, An introduction to applied geostatistics. Oxford University Press, New York. 561p.

Jahan, F. 2012. Comparison of different cauliflower cultivars on population and biological parameters of Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) (Hom.: Aphididae) in south of Tehran. M. Sc. Thesis , Shahed University, Iran (in Persian with English abstract).

Jun, C., Gong-yin Y., & Cui, H. 2004. Parasitism of Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) by a pupal endoparasitoid, Pteromalus puparum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae): effects of parasitization and venom on host hemocytes. Journal of Insect Physiology 50: 315–322

Karimi, J. 1992. Study on biology of Pieris rapae L. (Lep.:Pieridae) and ability of Bacillus thuringiensis, sub sp. Kurstaki on biological control against. M. Sc. Thesis, Tarbiat modares University, Iran (in Persian with English abstract).

Lim, G.S. 1986. Biological control of diamondback moth. Pp.159-171. In: Talekar, N.T. and Griggs, T.D. (Eds.), Diamondback Moth Management. Proceeding of the 1th International Workshop, Shanhua, Taiwan.

Macharia, I., Lohr, B. & De Groote, H. 2005. Assessing the potential impact of biological control of Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth) in cabbage production in Kenya. Crop Protection, 24: 981-989. 

Metcalf, C. & flint w.p. 1962. Destructive and useful insect. 3rd. 662-664 pp.

Pedigo, L.P. 1994. Introduction to Sampling Arthropod Population. 1-11. In: Pedigo, L. P. & Buntin, G. D. (eds.). Handbook of Sampling Methods for Arthropods in Agriculture. CRC  Boca Raton., FL: 689 p.

Pedigo, L.P. &  Buntin, G.B. 1993. Handbook of sampling methods for arthropods in Agriculture. CRE Press. 705 p.

Pfiffner, L., Luka, H., Schlatter, C., Juen, A. & Traugott, M. 2009. Impact of wildflower strips on biological control of cabbage lepidopterans. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 129: 310–314.

Sato, Y. & Ohsaki, N. 2004. Response of the wasp (Cotesiaglomerata) to larvae of the large white butterfly (Pieris brassicae). Ecological Research, 19: 445–449.

Talaei, R. 2009. Influences of plant species on life history traits of Cotesia rubecula (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and its host Pieris rapae (Lepidotera: Pieridae). Biological Control 51: 72–75.

Tindall, H.D. 1983. Vegetables in the Tropics, Macmillan Press Ltd., London.