مقایسه‏ی روش‏های به‏زراعی و شیمیایی در کنترل بیماری ریزوکتونیای سیب‌زمینی

نویسنده

چکیده

بیماری شانکر ریزوکتونیای سیب‏زمینی Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn یکی از بیماری‏های مهم این محصول در اصفهان می‏باشد که موجب شانکر روی ساقه‏های زیر زمینی، ریشه‏ها، استولن و کور شدن غده‏ها و نیز بیماری شوره سیاه روی سطح غده‏ها می‏گردد. در این تحقیق، بررسی هایی در خصوص اثر پیش جوانه‏دار کردن غده‏های بذری سیب‏زمینی و ضدعفونی غده‏ها و خاک قبل از کاشت روی این بیماری انجام یافت. بررسی‏های آزمایشگاهی با جدایه‏هایی از قارچ R. solani عامل بیماری نشان داد که سختینه‏های موجود غالباً بیماری‏زا می‏باشند. غده‏های بذری چهار رقم سیب‏زمینی برای  پیش جوانه‏دار کردن غده‏های سیب‏زمینی انتخاب و در شرایط اتاق مرطوب و نور معمول به مدت دو ماه قرار داده شد. سپس در زمین‏ آلوده با سابقه قبلی به بیماری ریزوکتونیا کشت گردیدند. نتایج نشان داد که سبز جوانه‌دار کردن غده‏های سیب‏زمینی، قبل از کاشت، موجب کاهش قابل توجه بیماری شانکر ریزوکتونیایی روی اندام‏های زیرزمینی گیاه بالاخص ساقه‏های زیرزمینی گردیده است. در این مطالعات، از قارچ‏کش رورال- تی -اس معروف به قارچ‏کش رورال، نیز در سه تیمار جداگانه به صورت ضدعفونی غده‏های بذری، ضدعفونی خاک و ضدعفونی توأم غده‏ها و خاک در مقایسه با تیمارهای فوق استفاده گردید. نتایج نشان داد که این قارچ‏کش اثر به سزایی در کاهش بیماری ریزوکتونیا اعم از شانکر و شوره سیاه سیب‏زمینی داشته است. این سه تیمار در یک گروه در مقایسه با شاهد و تیمارهای جوانه‏دار اثر معنی‏داری داشتند. هم‏چنین، تیمارهای جوانه‏دار نسبت به سایر تیمارها از ازدیاد رشد و نمو و محصول بیشتری برخوردار بودند. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of cultural and chemical measures of controls on Rhizoctonia disease of potato

نویسنده [English]

  • Mehdi Nasr Esfahani
چکیده [English]

Rhizoctonia canker, also known as stem canker and black scurf of potato, Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, causing serious economic losses by canker on under ground stem, roots, stolens, blanding of tubers and black scurf on potato surfacee in Isfahan. In this manscript, the effects of green chitting and or disinfection of potato seed tubers and soil were considered on this disease in the fields. The laboratory trails on R. solani isolates indicated that, almost all the sclerotinia are pathogenic. The seed tubers of four potato cultivars were selected and kept under room temperature along with normal light and high humidity for two months. Then, they were sown in the highly infested soil to the disease. The results indicated that the green chittings reduced Rhizoctonia stem canker severity effectively. In comparison to the above experiments, the fungicide screening, Rovral in the form of seed, soil and simultaneous seed and soil applications were carried out in the same fields. The results showed that the stem canker severity was reduced effectively compared to chittings and that of control. Increased growth response was observed in only green chitted potato seed tubers compared to other treatments. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Canker
  • Black scurf
  • Rhizoctonia
  • Chitting
  • Potato
  • fungicides
  • Rovral
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