مقاومت آنتی‌زنوزی 33 رقم زراعی سیب‌زمینی نسبت به سوسک کلرادوی سیب‌زمینی Leptinotarsa decemlineata

نویسندگان

چکیده

سوسک‏ کلرادوی‏ سیب­زمینی، (Say)Leptinotarsa decemlineata ، یکی از آفات خطرناک سیب‏زمینی در دنیا می­باشد. یکی از روش­های کنترل آن استفاده از ارقام مقاوم است. به منظور مقایسه میزان مقاومت آنتی­زنوزی 33 رقم زراعی سیب­زمینی نسبت به خسارت این آفت، آزمایش­های سه ساله­ای در سال­های 1386 تا 1388 در شرایط مزرعه­ای انجام گرفت. روش پژوهش در دو سال اول مشابه ولی در سال سوم اندکی متفاوت بود. در یک سری «آزمون انتخاب میزبان» در مزرعه تعداد حشرات کامل جلب شده به هر یک از بوته­ها به عنوان شاخص آنتی­زنوز تعیین گردید. در سال 1388 تعداد حشرات کامل جلب شده به هر یک از ارقام و تعداد دستجات تخم گذاشته شده بر روی آن­ها به عنوان شاخص آنتی­زنوز مورد استفاده قرار گرفتند. تجزیه خوشه­ای به روش UPGMA و بر اساس ضریب تشابه فاصله اقلیدسی و با استفاده از نرم افزار MINITAB15 انجام گرفت. تجزیه واریانس مرکب داده­های آزمون انتخاب میزبان در سال­های 1386 و 1387 نشان داد که از نظر تعداد     سوسک­های مستقر شده روی بوته­های مورد بررسی بین سال­های آزمایش، بلوک­ها، زمان­های شمارش، ارقام و اثر متقابل رقم × سال اختلاف معنی­دار وجود دارد. بر اساس مقایسه میانگین­ها، ارقام برایت، دلیکات، نیکولا، سینجا، کارلیتا و کاردینال در سال 1386 و ارقام کاردینال، کارلیتا، سینجا،  الس و رومینا در سال 1387 با جلب کمترین تعداد حشرات کامل بیشترین مقاومت آنتی­زنوزی را نشان دادند. بر اساس نتایج تجزیه خوشه­ای در دو سال اول ارقام کاردینال، کارلیتا، سینجا، برایت، راجا، نیکولا، رومینا، سانتانا، الس، فیانا و استیما با جلب کمترین تعداد حشرات کامل از لحاظ شاخص آنتی­زنوز در گروه مقاوم قرار گرفتند. همچنین نتایج تجزیه خوشه­ای بر اساس تعداد حشرات بالغ جلب شده به بوته­ها و تعداد دستجات تخم گذاشته شده در روی بوته­ها در سال 1388 نشان داد که از لحاظ شاخص آنتی­زنوز ارقام بریجت، بالتیکا، کاردینال، نیکولا، راجا، برایت، دلیکات، کارلیتا، پروونتو، کوزیما، آرمادا، الس و بلوگا با قرار گرفتن در یک گروه نسبت به بقیه ارقام اثرات آنتی­زنوزی قابل توجهی داشتند. بر اساس مقایسه میانگین­های تعداد حشرات کامل جلب شده به بوته­ها در سه سال آزمایش، ارقام کاردینال، کارلیتا و بریجت با جلب کمترین تعداد حشرات کامل بیشترین مقاومت آنتی­زنوزی را نشان دادند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of antixenosis resistance of 33 potato cultivars to the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Col.: Chrysomelidae)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Akbar Ghasemi Kahrizeh
  • Ghadir Nourighanbalani
  • Nouraddin Shayesteh
  • Iraj Bernousi
چکیده [English]

The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), is a serious pest of potato, Solanum tuberosum L. worldwidely. One of the methods used for controlling of it is deployment of resistant cultivars. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the antixenosis resistance in 33 potato cultivars to this pest during 2007 - 2009. Research method in 2007 was similar to 2008 and was different from 2009. In a field choice test, the numbers of attracted beetles to the cultivars were determined as antixenosis index. Numbers of attracted beetles to the cultivars and numbers of egg masses on them were used as antixenosis indices during 2009. Cluster analysis of cultivars was performed with MINITAB15 statistical software using UPGMA procedure based on Euclidean distance. Combined analysis of variance of choice test data in 2007 and 2008 showed that with point of settled adult beetles on the studied cultivars, significant difference was observed between experimental years, blocks, times of counting, cultivars and reciprocal effect of cultivar × year          (P < 0.0001). Mean comparison showed that cultivars Bright, Delikat, Nicola, Sinja, Carlita and Cardinal in 2007 and Cardinal, Carlita, Sinja, Elles and Romina in 2008 had the highest antixenosis resistance with the least settled adult beetles on them. Cluster analysis showed that in two first years, cultivars Cardinal, Carlita, Sinja, Bright, Raja, Nicola, Romina, Santana, Elles, Fianna and Satina with the least attracted beetles were resistance group in antixenosis index. Also, cluster analysis based on the number of attracted beetles to the cultivars and number of egg masses on the cultivars showed that cultivars Bridjet, Baltica, Cardinal, Nicola, Raja, Bright, Delikat, Carlita, Provento, Cosima, Armada, Elles and Beluga were placed in one group and had the highest antixenosis effects compared to others cultivars in 2009. Mean comparison showed that cultivars Cardinal, Carlita and Bridjet had the highest antixenosis resistance with the least settled adult beetles on them in three experimental years.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Resistance
  • Potato
  • Colorado potato beetle
  • antixenosis
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