جداسازی و شناسایی قارچ‌های بیمارگر موز در استان سیستان و بلوچستان

نویسنده

چکیده

به منظور شناسایی قارچ­های بیمارگر ریشه، طوقه، ساقه کاذب، برگ و میوة موز در سال­های  86-1384 از موزکاری­های مناطق مختلف چابهار و کنارک در استان سیستان و بلوچستان نمونه برداری انجام گرفت. پس از مشاهده علائم ظاهری بیماری، نسبت به کشت، جداسازی و شناسایی آنها اقدام گردید. برای جداسازی عوامل بیماری­زای قارچی تعدادی از قطعات آلوده برگ، ریزوم، ساقه کاذب، طوقه، ریشه و میوه پس از شستشو و ضدعفونی سطحی با هیپوکلریت سدیم 5% روی محیط کشت سیب‌‌زمینی ـ دکستروز ـ آگار (PDA) حاوی اسید لاکتیک کشت داده شد. جدایه­های به دست آمده به روش نوک ریسه (Hyphal tip) و تک اسپور (Single spore) کردن بر روی محیط کشت    آب- آگار (WA) 2% خالص شدند. بر اساس خصوصیات ریخت شناسی و آزمون بیماری­زایی     جدایه­های Fuasarium moniliforme, Fuasarium verticillioides, Acremonium sp., Fuasarium subglutinans, Fuasarium sambucinum, Fuasarium semitectum, Aspergillus carnenus,  Colletotrichum musae, و Musicillium theobromae به عنوان عوامل بیماری­زای میوة موز،    قارچ­هایCylidrocarpon sp. و Rhizoctonia solani عوامل بیماری­زای پوسیدگی ریزوم و ریشه موز و قارچ­های Alternaria alternata Drechslera gigantean, و Fuasarium proliferatum به عنوان عوامل بیماری­زای برگ در سطح استان شناسایی و معرفی شدند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Identification of fungal pathogens on Banana (Musa acuminata) in Sistan & Bluchestan province

نویسنده [English]

  • Majid Amani
چکیده [English]

In this study, identification of fungal pathogens of banana trees (Musaacuminate L.) in Sistan & Bluchestan province during 2005-2007 was studied. After observed of disease symptoms, infected tissues were collected and cultured. For isolation of fungi from diseased samples, small pieces of leaf, corm, pseudostem and fruit were surface sterilized with 5% hypochlorite sodium and then were cultured on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium contaning lactic acid. The growing colonies of fungi were purified by single spore and hyphal tip methods. Based on the morphological characters and pathogenicity test the fungi were identified as Colletotrichum musae,Aspergillus carnenus, Acremonium sp., Fuasarium verticillioides, F. semitectum, F. subglutinans, F. sambucinum and Musicillium theobromae causing fruit disease while F. oxysporum, Cylidrocarpon sp. and Rhisoctonia solani causing corm and root disease whereas, Alternaria alternate, Drechslera gigantean and Fusarium proliferatum causing leaf disease.  This is the first report of occurrence of these fungi in banana trees in Sistan & Bluchestan province.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Fungal Pathogens
  • Banana
  • Sistan & Bluchestan

Amani, M. 2001. Identification & Distribution of the causal agent of banana wilt in Baluchestan. M.Sc. Thesis, Islamic Azad University.

Amani, M. 2002. Cultivation & Production of Banana in Iran. 1rd ed. Agricultural Extension, Education & research Organization. Iran. 168pp.

Amani, M., Ershad, J., & Zare, R. 2006. Isolation and identification of fungi, the causal agents of Banana fruit cigar end rot in Iran. Proceedings of the 17th Iranian Plant Protection Congress.

Amani, M., Amani, H., Ershad, J., & Rezaee,S. 2006. Isolation and identification of banana leaf spot (Alternaria alternata) in Iran. Proceedings of the 17th Iranian Plant Protection Congress.

Amani, M. 2008. Identification of fungal Pathogens on Banana trees (Musa acuminate L.) in Iran. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Tropical and Subtropical Fruits, Bogor-Indonesia, 3-7th  November, 2008.

Barnett, H. L. and Hunter, B. B.1998.Illustrated genera of Imperfect fungi.4th edition. APS Press. 218pp.

Barnett, H.L. and B.B. Hunter. 2003. Illustrated genera of Imperfect fungi. 4rd edn. Burgess Publishing Company Minneapolis 15, Minn.

Boysen M, Borja M, delMoral C, Salazar O, Rubio V. 1996. Identification at strain level of Rhizoctonia solani AG4 isolates by direct sequence of asymmetric PCR products of the ITS regions. Curr Genet 29:174–181.

Booth, C. 1971. The Genus Fusarium. Kew, England: Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, UK.

Booth, C. and Stover, R.H.1974. Trans. Br. mycol. Soc. 63(3): 506.

Ershad, D. 1972. The occurrence of cigar-end disease of banana in Iran. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology 8.7-16.

Ershad, J. 1996. The Fungi of Iran. Published by Agricultural Research and Education Organization. Iran.

Ershad, D. 2009. Fungi of Iran. Plant Pests & Diseases Research Institute, Department of Botany, Tehran, 531 pp.

FAO. 2007. Available in http://www.fao.org/statistics/en.

Fincher, RM; Fisher, JF; Lovell, RD; Newman, CL; Espinel-Ingroff, A; Shadomy, H. J. 1991. "Infection due to the fungus Acremonium (cephalosporium)" Medicine 70 (6): 398–409.

Gerlach W, Ershad D, 1970. Beitrag zur kenntnis der Fusarium-und Cylindrocarpon-arten in Iran. Nova Hedwigia 20, 725-784.

Gerlach, W. and Nierenberg, H. 1982. The Genus Fusarium. A picturial atlas. Mitt. Biol. Bundesanst. Land-Farstwirtsch, Berl-Dahlem. 209, 1-406.

Ghosta, Y. 2004. A taxonomic study on the genus Alternaria from Iran. Ph.D. dissertation. Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, Iran.

Jinyong Lin, Tae Heon Lin and Byeongjin Cha, 2002. Isolation and Identification of Colletotrichum musae from Imported Bananas. The Korean Society of Plant Pathology. Plant Pathology Journal. 18(3):161-164p.

Jones, D. R. 2000. Diseases of banana, abaca and enset. CAB International. 544 pp.

Meredith, D. S. 1965. Tip rot of banana fruits in Jamaica. 2 Verticillium theobromae and Fusarium spp. Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc. 48:327-336.

Nelson, P. E., Toussoun, T. A. & Marassas, W. F. O. 1983. Fusarium species: An illustrated manual for identification. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. New York, 193 pp.

Ploetz, R.C., Zentmyer, G.A., Nishijima, W. T., Rohrbach, K.G. and Ohr, H.D. 1994. Compendium of tropical fruit diseases. APS Press. The American physiopathology Society.

Simmons, E. G. 1992. Alternaria taxonomy: Current status, viewpoint, challenge. In: Chelkowski J, Visconti A, (eds). Alternaria Biology, Plant Diseases and Metabolites, pp. 1-35. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam; The Netherlands.

Sing, R. S. 2000.Diseases of Fruit Crops. Published by Scince Publisher, Inc., Enfield, NH, USA.

Singleton, L., Mihalli, J. D. and Rush, C. M. 1992. Method for Research on Soil born Phytopathogenic fungi. APS Press, St. Paul, MN. 256p.

Sneh, B., Burpee, L., Ogoshi, A. 1991. Identification Of Rhizoctonia Species. APS Press, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA.

Stover, R.H. 1972. Banana, plantain and Abaca diseases. Commonw. Mycol, Instit., Kew.     

Sutton, B. C., and Waterston, J. M. 1970.Colletotrichum musae. Description of Pathogenic Fungi & Bacteria, no. 222. Commonwealth Mycological Institute. Kew, England.

Wardlaw, C.W. 1961. Banana Diseases. John Wiley & Sons, New yourk.

Wardlaw, C. W. 1972. Banana Diseases.  Including plantains and abaca, 2nd edn. Longman, London.

Zare, R., Gams, W., Starink-Willemse, M. and Summerbell, R.C. 2007. Gibellulopsis, a suitable genus for Verticillium nigrescens, and Musicillium, a new genus forV. theobromae. Nova Hedwigia, 85(3-4), 463-489.

Zare, R. and. Ershad, D. 1997. Fusarium species isolated from cereals in Gorgan area. Iran J. Plant Pathol., 33: 1-14.