سمیت تماسی سه اسانس گیاهی روی حشرات بالغ شپشه برنج Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)



در سال‌های اخیر، استفاده از مشتقات گیاهان به عنوان جایگزین سموم شیمیایی در کنترل آفات بسیار مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. در میان این مشتقات، اسانس‌های گیاهی مورد توجه می‌باشند. این ترکیبات به صورت سموم تدخینی، حشره‌کش‌های تماسی، دورکننده و بازدارنده تغذیه و میزان تخم‌ریزی عمل کرده و رشد جمعیت حشره را تحت تأثیر قرار می‌دهند. در جستجو برای دستیابی به روش کاربردی و با استفاده از مواد طبیعی برای کنترل آفات انباری، سمیت تماسی اسانس گیاهان پونهL.  Mentha longifolia، جعفری مکزیکی یا معطرL.  Tagetes minuta و مرمرشک          Boiss  Salvia macrosiphon روی حشرات کامل شپشه برنج Sitophilus oryzae(L.) در شرایط آزمایشگاهی بررسی شد. اسانس‌ها با استفاده از دستگاه کلونجر استخراج شدند. این تحقیق در قالب آزمایش فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح کاملاً تصادفی و در پنج غلظت و سه تکرار، همراه با تیمار شاهد در شرایط دمای 1 ±25 درجه سلسیوس، رطوبت نسبی 5 ±60 درصد و تاریکی انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که با افزایش غلظت هر اسانس و نیز با گذشت زمان، درصد تلفات افزایش یافت. همچنین نتایج بیانگر اثر سمیت تماسی بیشتر اسانس پونه و اثر ضعیف‌تر اسانس مرمرشک بر روی حشرات مورد مطالعه بوده است. در بالاترین غلظت (35 میکرولیتر بر میلی‌لیتر) درصد تلفات ایجاد شده توسط اسانس گیاهان پونه،‌ جعفری مکزیکی و مرمرشک بعد از 48 ساعت برای حشرات کامل شپشه برنج به ترتیب 3/93، 3/83 و 70 درصد بوده است. مقادیر LC50 برای اسانس گیاهان مذکور بعد از 48 ساعت روی حشرات مورد مطالعه به ترتیب 892/18، 003/21 و 481/24 میکرولیتر بر میلی‌لیتر محاسبه گردید. نتایج این بررسی نشان داد که اسانس گیاهان پونه، جعفری مکزیکی و مرمرشک منابع بیولوژیکی مؤثری هستند که می‌توانند برای حفاظت غلات انبار شده از آلودگی توسط شپشه برنج به کار برده شوند.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Contact toxicity of three plant essential oils on adult insects of Sithophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Yasamin Motamedi
  • Majid Fallahzadeh
  • Vahid Roshan
چکیده [English]

Recently, there has been growing interest in research concerning the possible use of plant extracts as alternatives to synthetic insecticides. Essential oils are among the best-known substances tested against insects. These compounds may act as fumigants, contact insecticides, repllants, antifeedants and may affect growth and development of the insect. In an attempt to find a natural and inexpensive method for the control of stored-product pests, contact toxicity of essential oils of Mentha longifolia L., Tagetes minuta L. and Salvia macrosiphon Boiss. was investigated on adult insects of Sitophilus oryzae L. (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) on laboratory condition. The oils were extracted by using Clevenger apparatus. The experiment was conducted using a completely randomized design of factorial experiment with five concentrations and three replications at R.H in darkness. The results showed that the percentage of mortality was increased with increase in concentration and exposure of time. The highest contact toxicity was related to M. longifolia and the lowest toxicity was recorded for S. macrosiphon against insects. At the highest concentration of essential oils (35 µl/ml) by M. longifolia,T. minuta and S. macrosiphon the mortality were recorded as 93.3%,83.3% and 70% against S. oryzae after 48h, respectively. The LC50 values were evaluated by M. longifolia, T. minuta and S. macrosiphon 18.892, 21.003 and 24.482 for S. oryzae after 48h .According to the results, the essential oils of M. longifolia,T. minuta and S. macrosiphon are sources of biologically active vapor that can be used in protection of stored grains against  rice weevil.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • contact toxicity
  • Mentha longifolia
  • Tagetes minuta
  • Salvia macrosiphon
  • Sitophilus oryzae

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