پارازیتوئیدهای لاروی و شفیرگی بید کلم در استان اصفهان ،Plutella xylostella (Lep.: Plutellidae)

نویسندگان

چکیده

به منظور شناسایی پارازیتوئیدهای لاروی و شفیرگی بید کلم،Plutella xylostella (L.)(Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)، از دو میزبان گیاهی کلم­پیچ و کلم­گل در دو منطقه مبارکه و فلاورجان واقع در استان اصفهان در سال 1388 نمونه برداری صورت گرفت. در هر منطقه دو مزرعه و در هر مزرعه ده بوته به طور تصادفی انتخاب شد. لاروها و شفیره­های بید کلم از روی هر بوته جمع­آوری و تحت شرایط آزمایشگاهی پرورش داده شدند. طی بررسی­های به عمل آمده در مجموع هفت گونه زنبور پارازیتوئید (پنج گونه پارازیتوئید لاروی و دو گونه پارازیتوئید شفیرگی) و دو گونه زنبور هایپرپارازیتوئید به شرح زیر شناسایی گردید:
 
1- پارازیتوئید­های لاروی:
Cotesia plutellae (Kurdjumov) (Braconidae)
Apanteles sp. (Braconidae)
Bracon hebetor Say(Braconidae)
Diadegma semiclausum (Hellen) (Ichneumonidae)
Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov) (Eulophidae)
 
2- پارازیتوئید­های شفیر­گی:
Diadromus collaris (Gravenhorst) (Ichneumonidae)
Diadromus subtilicornis (Gravenhorst) (Ichneumonidae)
3- هایپرپارازیتوئیدها:
Mokrzeckia obscura Graham (Pteromalidae)
Pteromalus sp. (Pteromalidae)       
 
 فراوانی گونه­ها و برخی از ویژگی­های زیستی آنها مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. گونه­ M. obscura برای اولین بار از ایران و از روی بید کلم گزارش می­شود. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Larval and pupal parasitoids of Plutella xylostella (Lep.: Plutellidae) in Isfahan province, Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Afiunizadeh Isfahani
  • Javad Karimzadeh Isfahani
چکیده [English]

Field studies were performed to identify larval and pupal parasitoids of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera, Plutellidae), in Isfahan province during summer and autumn of 2009. In each main cabbage growing area (Flavarjan and Mobarakeh counties), two fields of common cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and two fields of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) were chosen. Sampling was then carried out on ten randomly selected plants within each field, where all P. xylostella larvae and pupae were collected and reared under laboratory conditions. In the present study, seven species of parasitoid wasps (five larval and two pupal parasitoids) and two species of hyperparasitoid wasps were determined:
 
1- Larval Parasitoids:
Cotesia plutellae (Kurdjumov) (Braconidae)
Apanteles sp. (Braconidae)
Bracon hebetor Say(Braconidae)
Diadegma semiclausum (Hellen) (Ichneumonidae)
Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov) (Eulophidae)
 
2- Pupal Parasitoids:
Diadromus collaris (Gravenhorst) (Ichneumonidae)
Diadromus subtilicornis (Gravenhorst) (Ichneumonidae)
 
3- Hyperparasitoids:
Mokrzeckia obscura Graham (Pteromalidae)
Pteromalus sp. (Pteromalidae)       
The proportional abundance and some biological characteristics of parasitoid species were investigated. This is the first record of M. obscura on P. xylostella in Iran.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Plutella xylostella
  • larval Parasitoid
  • pupal parasitoid
  • Isfahan Province
van Achterberg, C., & Polaszek, A. 1996. The parasites of cereal stem borers (Lepidoptera: Cossidae, rambidae, Noctuidae, Pyralidae) in Africa, belonging to the family Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea). Zoologische Verhandlingen, 304: 1-123.

Alizadeh, S. & Javan Moghaddam, H. 2004. Introduction of some natural enemies of common cutworm (Agrotis segetum Schiff) in Miyandoab. Proceedings of the 16th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, 28 Aug.- 1 Sept. 2004, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran, p. 45.

Bagheri, M., Hatami, B. & Nematollahi, M. 2004. The first record of Diadegma semiclausum, endoparasitoid of larvae of Plutella xylostella on wallflower in greenhouses of Isfahan. Proceedings of the 16th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, 28 Aug.- 1 Sept. 2004, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran, p. 162.

Behdad, E. 1991. Pests of Fruit Crop in Iran, Second Edition. Neshat Publishing, esfahan, Iran (In Persian).

Bozorg-Amirkalaee, M., Fathi, S.A.A., Nouri-Ganbalani, G. & Rafiee-Dastjerdi, H. 2010. Identification of parasitoid species of the diamondback moth larvae and evaluation of the efficiency of dominant parasitoid species on nineteen canola cultivars in Ardabil region. Proceedings of the 19th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, 31 July.- 3 Aug. 2010, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Tehran, Iran, p. 33.

Charleston, D.S., Kfir, R., Dicke, M. & Vet, L.E.M. 2006. Impact of botanical extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica on populations of Plutella xylostella and its natural enemies: A field test of laboratory findings. Biological Control, 39: 105-114.

Cordero, R.J., Bloomquist, J.R. & Kuhar, T.P. 2007. Susceptibility of two diamondback moth parasitoids, Diadegma insulare (Cresson) (Hymenoptera; Ichneumonidae) and Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov) (Hymenoptera; Eulophidae), to selected commercial insecticides.  Biological Control, 42: 48–54.

Faal-MohamadAli. H., Seraj, A.A., Talebi-Jahromi, Kh., Shishebor, P. & Mosadegh, M.S. 2010. Investigation sublethal effect of conventional pesticides of tomato fields on life cycle parameters of Habrobracon hebetor Say (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in adult stage. Proceedings of the 19th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, 31 July.- 3 Aug. 2010, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Tehran, Iran, p. 264.

Fauna Europaea, 2010. http://www.faunaeur.org, Accessed 27-December-2010.

Fitton, M. & Walker, A. 1992. Hymenopterous parasitoids associated with diamondback moth: the taxonomic dilemma. In: Talekar NS (ed), The Management of Diamondback Moth and Other Crucifer Pests. Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop. Tainan, Taiwan, 10-14 December 1990. pp. 225–232, AVRDC, Shanhua.

Fouruzan, M., Sahragard, A. & Amir Maafi, M. 2010. Age-specific two sex life table of the parasitoid wasp, Habrobracon hebetor Say (Hym.: Braconidae) reared on Galleria mellonella. Proceedings of the 19th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, 31 July.- 3 Aug. 2010, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Tehran, Iran, p. 62.

Furlong, M.J. & Zalucki, M.P. 2007. Parasitoid complex of diamondback moth in south-east Queensland: first records of Oomyzus sokolowskii (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Australia. Australian Journal of Entomology, 46: 167-175.

Gichini, G., Loehr, B., Rossbach, A., Nyambo, B. & Gathu, R. 2008. Can low release numbers lead to establishment and spread of an exotic parasitoid: The case of the diamondback moth parasitoid, Diadegma semiclausum (Hellen) in East Africa. Crop Protection, 27: 906-914.

Golizadeh, A. 2008. Thermal requirements and population dynamics of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lep., Plutellidae), in Tehran region. Ph.D. Thesis, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran,Iran [in Persian].

Golizadeh, A., Kamali, K., Fathipour, Y., Abbasipour, H. & Jussila, R. 2008a. Report of the parasitoid wasp, Diadegma anurum (Hym.: Ichneumonidae), from Iran. Journal of Entomological Society of Iran (Supplement), 27: 15-16.

Golizadeh, A., Kamali, K., Fathipour, Y., Abbasipour, H. & Baur, H. 2008b. Report of the parasitoid wasp, Cotesia Plutellae (Hym.: Braconidea), from Iran. Journal of Entomological Society of Iran (Supplement), 27: 19-20.

Golizadeh, A., Kamali, K., Fathipour, Y., Abbasipour, H. & Lozan, A. 2008c. Report of the parasitoid wasp, Oomyzus sokolowskii (Hym.: Eulophidae), from Iran. Journal of Entomological Society of Iran (Supplement), 27: 29-30.

Gols, R. & Harvey, J.A. 2009. The effect of host developmental stage at parasitism on sex-related size differentiation in a larval endoparasitoid. Ecological Entomology, 34: 755-762.

Guilloux, T., Monnerat, R., Castelo-Branco, M., Kirk, A. & Bordat, D. 2003. Population dynamics of Plutella xylostella (Lep., Yponomeutidae) and its parasitoids in the region of Brasilia. Journal of Applied Entomology, 127: 288-292.

Gunduz, E.A. and Gulel, A. 2005. Investigation of fecundity and sex ratio in the parasitoid Bracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in relation to parasitoid age. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 29: 291-294.

Harcourt, D.G. 1986. Population dynamics of the diamondback moth in southern Ontario. In: Talekar NS, Griggs TD (eds),The Management of Diamondback Moth and Other Crucifer Pests. Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop. Tainan, Taiwan, 11-15 March 1985. pp. 3-16.

Haseeb, M., Kobori, Y., Amano, H. & Nemoto, H. 2001. Population dynamics of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) and its parasitoid Cotesia plutellae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on two varieties of cabbage in an urban environment. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 36: 353–360.

Ibrahim, M.A., Nissinen, A., & Holopainen, J.K. 2005. Response of Plutella xylostella and its parasitoid Cotesia plutellae to volatile compounds. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 31: 1969–1984.

Idris, A.B. & Grafius, E. 2001 Effects of plant density on abundance of diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) and Diadegma insulare (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). International Journal of Pest Management, 47: 103-107.

Kahuthia-Gathu, R., Loِhr, B. & Poehling, H.M. 2008. Effect of common wild crucifer species of Kenya on fitness of two exotic diamondback moth parasitoids, Cotesia plutellae and Diadegma semiclausum. Crop Protection, 27: 1477-1484.

Kamijo, K. 1982. Some pteromalids (Hymenoptera) associated with forest pests in of two new species. Kontyû, 50: 67-75.

Karimzadeh, J., Bonsall, M.B. & Wright, D.J. 2004. Bottom-up and top-down effects in a tritrophic system: the population dynamics of Plutella xylostella (L.) Cotesia plutellae (Kurdjumov) on different host plants. Ecological Entomology,29: 285-293.

Karimzadeh.J. & Sayyed, A.H. 2008. Interaction between Bacillus thuringiensis and Cotesia plutellae: an immune system challenge. Proceedings of the 18th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, Buali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran, 24-27 Aug. 2008, p. 31.

Karimzadeh, J. & Wright, D.J. 2008. Bottom- up cascading effects in a tritrophic system: interaction between plant quality and host- parasitoid immune responses. Ecological Entomology, 33: 45-52.

Kawagushi, M. & Tanaka, T. 1999. Biological characteristics of a larval endoparasitoid, Cotesia plutellae (Hymenoptera: Plutellidae): host stage preference, subsequent sex ratio of progeny and mate location of males. Applied Entomology and Zoology,34: 213-221.

Kfir, R. 1997. Parasitoids of Plutella xylostella (Lep.: Plutellidae) in South Africa: an annotated list. Entomophaga, 42: 517-523.

Khan, M.F.R., Griffin, R.P., Carner, G.R. & Gorsuch, C.S. 2004. Diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) Population density and parasitism by Diadegma insulare on collard in South Carolina. Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology, 21: 164-170.

Khatri, D., Wang, Q. and He, X.Z. 2008. Development and reproduction of Diadegma semiclausum (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) on diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). New Zealand Plant Protection, 61: 322-327.

Kishani Farahani, H., Goldansaz. S.H. & Sabahi, G. 2008. Study of larval parasitoids of carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller (Lep.: Pyralidae) in Saveh, Qom and Varamin. Proceedings of the 18th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, Buali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran, 24-27 Aug. 2008, p. 72.

Kwon, M. Park, K.R. & Kwon, H.J. 2003. Developmental characteristics of Diadegma semiclausum Hellen (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), a larval parasitoid of Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae). Journal of Asia- Pasific Entomology,6: 105-110.

Lavandero, B., Wratten, S., Shishehbor, P. & Worner, S. 2005. Enhancing the effectiveness of the parasitoid Diadegma semiclausum (Hellén): movement after use of nectar in the field. Biological Control, 34: 152–158.

Lim, G.S. 1986. Biological control of diamondback moth. In: Talekar NS, Griggs TD (eds),The Management of Diamondback Moth and Other Crucifer Pests. Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop. Tainan, Taiwan, 11-15 March 1985. pp. 159-171, AVRDC, Shanhua.

Liu, S., Wang, X., Guo, S., He, J. & Shi, Z. 2000. Seasonal abundance of the parasitoid complex associated with the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in Hangzhou, China. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 90: 221-231.

Liu, S.S. & Jiang, L.H. 2003. Differential parasitism of Plutella xylostella             ( Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) larvae by the parasitoid Cotesia plutellae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on two host plant species. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 93: 65-72.

Macharia, I., Loehr, B. & Groote, D.H. 2005. Assessing the potential impact of biological control of plutella xylostella (diamondback moth) in cabbage production in Kenya. Crop Protection, 24: 981-989.

Mustata, G. 1992. Role of parasitoid complex in limiting the population of diamondback moth in Moldavia, Romania. In: Talekar NS (ed), The Management of Diamondback Moth and Other Crucifer Pests. Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop. Tainan, Taiwan, 10-14 December 1990. pp. 203–212, AVRDC, Shanhua.

Mustaţa, G.h., Mustaţa, M., Feraru, E., Patriche, G., 2006. Parasitoids and hyperparasitoids in Plutella xylostella L. populations from Moldavia (Romania). Analele Ştiinţifice ale Universitaţii “Al. I. Cuza”, Iaşi, s. Biologie Animala, LII: 109-117.

Nakamura, A. & Noda, T. 2001. Host-age effects on ovioposition behavior and development of Oomyzus sokolowskii (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a larval parasitoid of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology, 36: 367-372.

Noda, T., Miyai, S., Takashino, K. & Nakamura, A. 2000 Density suppression of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) by multiple releases of Diadegma semiclausum (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) in cabbage fields in Iwate, northern Japan. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 35: 557-563.

Noyes, J.S., 2010. Universal Chalcidoidea Database - World Wide Web electronic publication, http://www.nhm.ac.uk/entomology/chalcidoids/index.html Accessed 30-February-2010.

Ooi, P.A.C. 1992. Role of parasitoids in managing diamondback moth in the Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. In: Talekar NS (ed), The Management of Diamondback Moth and Other Crucifer Pests. Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop. Tainan, Taiwan, 10-14 December 1990. pp. 255-262, AVRDC Shanhua.

Pirhadi, A., Rajabi, G., Ebrahimi, E., Ostvan, H., Shekarian Moghaddam, B., Mohiseni, A. A., Mozaffarian, F. & Ghavami, S. 2008. Naural enemies of cereal leaf miner Syringopais temperatella Led. (Lep.: Elachistidae) in Lorestan province. Proceedings of the 18th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, Buali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran, 24-27 Aug. 2008, p. 71.

Poelking, A. 1992. Diamondback moth in the Philippines and its control with Diadegma semiclausum. In: Talekar NS (ed), The Management of Diamondback Moth and Other Crucifer Pests. Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop. Tainan, Taiwan, 10-14 December 1990. pp. 271–278. AVRDC Shanhua.

Rossbach, A., Löhr, B. & Vidal, S. 2006. Parasitism of Plutella xylostella L. feeding on a new host plant. Environmental entomology, 35: 1350-1357.

Sarfraz, M., Keddie, A.B. & Dosdall, L.M. 2005. Biological control of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella: a review. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 15: 763-789.

Shaw, M.R. (2003) Revised synonymy in the genus Cotesia (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae): the identity of Microgaster vestalis Haliday, 1834, as a senior synonym of Apanteles plutellae Kurdjumov, 1912. Entomologist’s Gazette, 54: 187–189.

Shi. Z.H., Liu, S.S. & Li, Y.X. 2002. Cotesia plutellae parasitizing Plutella xylostella: Host-age dependent parasitism and its effect on host development and food consumption. BioControl, 47: 499–511.

Shi, Z.H., Li, Q.B. & Li, X. 2004. Interspecific competition between Diadegma semiclausum Hellén (Hym., Ichneumonidae) and Cotesia plutellae (Kurdjumov) (Hym., Braconidae) in parasitizing Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lep., Plutellidea). Journal of Applied Entomology, 128: 437–444.

Shiojiri, K., Takabayashi, J., Yano, S. & Takafuji, A. 2000. Herbivore-species-specific interactions between crucifer plants and parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) that are mediated by infochemicals present in areas damaged by herbivores. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 35: 519–524.

Talekar, N.S. 1996. Biological control of diamondback moth in Taiwan: a review. Plant Protection Bulletin, 38: 167-189.

Talekar, N.S. & Shelton, A.M. 1993. Biology, ecology and management of the diamondback moth. Annual Review of Entomology, 38: 275-301.

Tran, T.V. & Takasu, K. 2000. Host age selection by the host-feeding pupal parasitoid. Diadromus subtilicornis (Gravenhorst) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology,35: 549–556.

Verkerk, R.H.J. & Wright, D.J. 1997. Field-based studies with the diamondback moth tritrophic system in Cameron Highlands of Malaysia: implications for pest management. International Journal of Pest Management, 43: 27-33.

Wang, X.G., Duff, J., Keller, M.A., Zalucki, M.P., Liu, S.S. & Bailey, P. 2004. Role of Diadegma semiclausum (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) in controlling Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae): Cage exclusion experiments and direct observation. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 14: 571-586.

Wang, X.G., Liu, S.S. 2002. Effects of host age on the performance of Diadromus collaris, a pupal parasitoid of Plutella xylostella. BioControl, 47: 293-307.

Wang, X.G., & Keller, M.A. 2002. A comparison of the host-searching efficiency of two larval parasitoids of Plutella xylostella. Ecological Entomology, 27: 105-114.

Wang, X.G. and Keller, M.A. 2005. Patch time allocation by the parasitoid Diadegma semiclausum (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). II. Effects of host density and distribution. Journal of Insect Behavior, 18: 171-186.

Yaseen, M. 1978. The establishment of two parasites of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lep.: Plutellidae) in Trinidad, W. I. Entomophaga, 23: 111–114.