آستانه تحمل گندم دیم به نماتد سیستی غلات Heterodera filipjevi، در آزمایش‌های گلدانی در ایران

نویسندگان

چکیده

نماتد سیستی غلات Heterodera filipjevi (Madzhidov)، به عنوان یکی از مهم‌ترین عوامل بیماری‌زای محدود کننده عملکرد گندم در برخی از نواحی کشت گندم دیم در جهان شناخته می‌شود. این گونه از تعدادی از مناطق کشت غلات در ایران نیز گزارش شده است. برای تعیین واکنش و حد تحمل گندم دیم رقم سرداری به تراکم های مختلف جمعیت نماتد H. filipjevi، دو آزمایش گلدانی در طی دو سال زراعی انجام گرفت. گلدان ها با تراکم های جمعیت اولیه صفر، 5/2، 5، 10 و 20 تخم و لارو سن دوم نماتد در هر گرم خاک به طور مصنوعی آلوده شدند. آزمایش‌ها در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با هفت تکرار در شرایط طبیعی مزرعه انجام شدند. در این تحقیق برای عملکرد دانه گندم، حد تحمل (T) 8/0 در سال اول و 6/0 تخم و لارو سن دوم در هر گرم خاک برای سال دوم ارزیابی شد. همچنین میانگین حد تحمل 7/0 تخم و لارو سن دوم در هر گرم خاک برای هر دو سال تعیین شد. حداقل عملکرد نسبی دانه گندم برای سال اول و دوم به ترتیب 4/0 و 45/0 تخم و لارو در جمعیت اولیه 40 و 64 تخم و لارو سن دوم در هر گرم خاک تعیین شد. جمعیت نهایی نماتد با افزایش تراکم جمعیت اولیه افزایش یافت و بیشترین میزان تولید­مثل نماتد در تراکم جمعیت 5/2 تخم و لارو سن دوم بترتیب 6/4 و 9/3 برای سال های اول و دوم آزمایش بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Tolerance limit of winter wheat to cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera filipjevi, in pot trials in Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Masomeh Hajihassani
  • Abolfazl Hajihassani
چکیده [English]

The cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera filipjevi, is recognised as one of the most important soil-borne pathogens limiting yield in many rain-fed wheat growing areas throughout the world. It also occurs in many cereal growing regions of Iran. Two pot experiments were conducted under field conditions to evaluate the response and tolerance limit of winter wheat cv. Sardari to infestation with different population densities of H. filipjevi. Pots were artificially infested with initial population densities (Pi) of 0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 eggs and second-stage juveniles (J2s)/g soil. Each treatment was replicated seven times during two successive growing seasons. Tolerance limits (T) of 0.8 and 0.6 eggs and J2/g soil for the grain yield were estimated in the first and second years respectively, with an average of 0.7 egg and J2/g soil for both years. Minimum relative yields were 0.4 at the Pi of 40 in the first year and 0.45 at the Pi of 64 in the second year for the grain yield. The final population of H. filipjevi increased with increasing the Pi levels. The maximum reproduction rates of the nematode were 4.6 and 3.9 at the lowest Pi of 2.5 eggs and J2s/g soil in the first and second years respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • CCN
  • Heterodera filipjevi
  • Tolerance limit
  • Wheat

Abdollahi, M. 2008. Morphology and morphometricts of Heterodera filipjevi (Madzhidov, 1981) Stelter, 1984 from Kohkiluye and Boyer-Ahmad Province, Iran. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 11 (14): 1864-1867.

Al-Hazmi, A.S., Al–Yahya, F.A. & Abdul-Razig, A.T. 1999. Damage and reproduction potential of Heterodera avenae on wheat under outdoor conditions. Supplement to the Journal of Nematology, 31: 662-666.

Dhawan, S.C. & Nagesh, M. 1987. On the relationship between population densities of Heterodera avenae growth of wheat and nematode multiplication. Indian Journal of Nematology, 17(2): 231-236.

Dunn, R.A. 1969. Extraction of cyst of Heterodera species form soils by centrifugation in high density solutions. Journal of Nematology,  1: 7.

Fatemy, S., Parvizi, R. & Greco, N. 2007. Respons of suger beet to population of Heterodera schachtii in microplots in Iran. Russian Journal of Nematology, 15 (1): 9-14.

Greco, N. & Brandonisio, A. 1987. Investigations on Heterodera avenae in Italy. Nematologia Mediterranea, 15: 225-234. 

Hajihasani, A., Tanha Maafi, Z., & Hajihasani, M. 2010a. The life cycle of Heterodera filipjevi in winter wheat under microplot conditions in Iran. Nematologia Mediterranea, 38: 53-57.

Hajihasani, A., Tanha Maafi, Z., Nicol J.M, & Rezaee, S. 2010b. Effect of the cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera filipjevi on wheat in microplot trials. Nematology, 12 (3): 357-363.

Hajihasani, A., Tanha Maafi, Z., Nicol, J.M., & Seraji, A. 2010c. Relationships between population densities of the cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera latipons and yield losses of winter wheat in microplots. Australasian Plant Pathology, 39 (6): 330-335.

Hajihassani, A., Tanha Maafi, Z., Ahmadi A.R. 2011. Survey of cereal cyst nematodes and biology of Heterodera latipons in rain-fed wheat in Markazi province, Iran. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 13 (in press).

Hooper, D.J. 1986. Extraction of nematodes from plant material, pp. 51-58, In: Southey, J.F. (Ed.) Laboratory methods for work with plant and soil nematodes. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.

Karimipour Fard, H. & Tanha Maafi, Z. 2010. Three years studies on distribution and population density of Heterodera filipjevi in cereal fields of Isfahan province, Iran. Proceedings 30th International Symposium of the European Society of Nematologists, Vienna, Austria.

Magi, E. 1989. The relationships between the cereal cyst nematode population density, barley yield and nematode multiplication in field plots. Eesti NSV Teaduste Akadeemia Toimetised Biologia, 38: 189-194.

Meagher, J.W. & Brown, R.H. 1974. Microplot experiment on the effect of plant hosts on populations of the cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae) and on the subsequent yield of wheat. Nematologica, 20: 337-346. 

Nicol, J.M. & Rivoal, R. 2008. Global knowledge and its application for the integrated control and management of nematodes on wheat, pp. 243-287, In: Ciancio, A. and Mukerji, K.G. (Eds.) Integrated management and biocontrol of vegetable and grain crops nematodes. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Springer Academic Publishing.

Nicol, J.M. 2002. Important nematode pests, pp. 345-366, In: Curtis, B.C., Rajaram, S., Gómez Macpherson, H. (Eds.) Bread wheat: improvement and production. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 

Nicol, J.M., Bolat, N., Sahin, E., Tülek A., Yıldırım, A.F., Yorgancılar, A., Kaplan, A. & Braun, H.J. 2006. The cereal cyst nematode is causing economic damage on rain-fed wheat production systems of Turkey. Phytopathology,96.

Riley, I.T, Nicol, J.M. & Dababat, AA. 2009. Cereal cyst nematodes: status, research and outlook. CIMMYT: Ankara, Turkey. 245 pp.

Rivoal, R. & Cook, R. 1993. Nematode pests of cereals, pp. 259-303, In: Evans, K., Trudgill, D.L. & Webster, J.M. (Eds.) Plant parasitic nematodes in temperate agriculture. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK.

Sahin, E., Nicol, J.M., Elekçiolu, H., Yorgancılar, Ö., Yıldırım, A.F., Tülek, A., Hekimhan, H., Yorgancılar, A., Kılınç, A.T., Bolat, N. & Erginbas-Orakc, G. 2009. Frequency and diversity of cereal nematodes on the Central Anatolian Plateau of Turkey, pp. 100-105, In: Riley, I.T., Nicol, J.M. & Dababat, A.A (Eds.) Cereal cyst nematodes: status, research and outlook. CIMMYT, Ankara, Turkey.

Scholz, U. 2001. Biology, pathogenicity and control of the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera latipons Franklin, on wheat and barley under semiarid conditions, and interactions with common root rot Bipolaris sorokiniana Shoemaker. Ph.D. Thesis, Bonn University, Germany.

Seinhorst, J.W. 1965. The relationship between nematode density and damage to plants. Nematologica, 11:137-154.

Seinhorst, J.W. 1979. Nematodes and growth of Plants: formulation of the nematode-plant system, In: Lamberti, F. & Taylor, C.E. (Eds.) Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne species) systematics, Biology and Control. Academic Press, London, UK.

Smiley, R.W., & Nicol, J.M. 2009. Nematodes which challenge global wheat production, pp. 171-187, In: Carver, B.F. (Ed.) Wheat Science and Trade. Wiley-Blackwell, Ames, Iowa, USA.

Smiley, R.W., Ingham, R.E., Uddn, W. & Cook, G.H. 1994. Crop sequences for managing cereal cyst nematode and fungal pathogens of winter wheat. Plant Disease, 78: 1142-1149.

Smiley, R.W., Whittker, R.G., Gourlie, J.A., Easley, S.A. & Ingham, R.E. 2005. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with reduced wheat yield in Oregon: Heterodera avenae.  Journal of Nematology,  37: 297-307.

Stirling, G., Nicol, J. & Reay, F. 1999. Advisory Services for Nematode Pests Operational Guidelines. RIRDC Publication No 99/ 41: 111 pp.

 Tanha Maafi, Z., Nicol, J.M., Kazemi, H., Ebrahimi, N., Gitty, M., Ghalandar, M., Mohammadi-Pour, M. & Khoshkhabar, Z.h. 2009. Cereal cyst nematodes, root rot pathogens and root lesion nematodes affecting cereal production in Iran, pp. 51-55, In: Riley, I.T., Nicol, J.M. & Dababat, A.A. (Eds.) Cereal cyst nematodes: status, research and outlook. CIMMYT, Ankara, Turkey.