عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Camelthorn is a perennial noxious weed belonging to the Fabaceae family that exist almost in the most regions in Iran and reproduces by seed and rhizome. In 2008, a seed beetle was collected on legumes of camelthorn which identified as Bruchidius fulvus (Allard, 1883). Biology of this insect was studied in laboratory conditions in 15±1:25±1˚C light:day, relative humidity of 65±5% and length of light: dark 12:12h and also field (Natural) conditions. Incubation period of eggs prolonged about 6±1.71 days. Eggs placed on legumes individually and the mean number of egg lay for a female was 19.8±0.95 eggs. The larva bore directly into the seeds through the cortex at the end of embryonic development. The mature larvae change to the pupa inside the seed. This beetle has 2-3 generations annually in Birjand and overwinters as larva inside extant legumes of host plant. The larvae change to pupa and adult in late spring and early summer (beginning of flowering camelthorn). The adult females start to lay eggs after having a taste from host leaves and flowers, simultaneous by appearing legumes. Only a larva remains inside each seed and grow after feeding from inner parts of the legumes and change to pupa there. Adult seed beetles make their way outside by boring a small hole on the seed and extant legume. The life cycle accomplishment of this beetle from egg to adult depends on environmental condition lasted 48.8±2.48 days. Under laboratory conditions, larval and pupal periods last about 32±0.94 and 11±0.54 days, respectively. The larvae of this beetle can damage camelthorn seeds up to 35-48% in natural conditions. Because of its impact on seed production, the camelthorn weevil may be a valuable candidate for biological control of camelthorn in the south khorasan.