عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Barley (Hordeum vulgar) is one of the most important strategical world's agricultural products which stand in the 4th position after wheat, soya and corn, Barley, also attact with several diseases out of which, true loose smut is one of the most important one, which causing qualitative and quantitative losses. Various management strategies are taken into considerations to control the disease. One of the economical methods to manage the diseases is the application of general systemic fungicides. In this study, we evaluated some systemic fungicides including carboxin thiram (Dividend star ®, %75 wp), triadimenol (Baytan®, %7.5 wp), diniconazol (Somi8®, wp), triniconazol (Real®, FS), repectively in various dosage levels of 2, 2, 1/5 and. /2, in comparison with a newer fungicid Dividend star® 036 (FS) also, in various dosage levels, which was taken into studies on a Barley cultivar "Karun dar Kavir" (Nosrat).The experiment was carried out in a Rendomized Block Design (RBD) with the above fungicides in various dosage in 10 treatments in the field conditions at the years of 2006 -2007. The results showed that, the fungicides Dividend® (2ml/lit), Somi8® (2gr/lit), Real® (0.02ml/lit) and Baytan® (1.5 gr/lit) were the most efficient fungicides in the disease control repectively. Carboxy thiram (2gr/lit) and Dividend® (1ml/lit) were the least concerned on the disease control in comparison to other fungicides, including the control.
Babadoost, M. 1995. Incidence of seed-born fungal diseases of barley in East Azarbaijan and Ardabil provinces. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology. 31: (1-4), 77-78.
Buffa, G. & Tamborini, L. 1990. Ulteriori contibuti sperimentali. Seed treatment of barley: further experimental contributions. Sezione ENSE di Milano, Italy. 36: 39 – 42.
Clayton, P. B., Presly, A. H. & Rutherford, S. R. 1988. Some aspects of film coating agrochemicals on seed. British Crop Protection Council, Monograph, 39: 229-235.
Edgington, L. V, Walton, G. S., & Miller, P. M. 1966. Fungicides selective for Basidiomycetes. Science, 153:307.
FAO stat (FAO Statistics Division) 2007. Food and agricuture organization of the united nations area harvested (1000 Ha) | Barley +, Production quantity (1000 tonnes) ,Yield per hectar (Kg./ha.)
Holloman, D. W. & Carter, G. A. 1989. Resistance within UK isolates of Ustilago nuda to carboxanilide fungicides. ISPP – Chemical Control Newsletter, 12: 37– 39
Jones. P. & Bartlett. J. 2005 Syngenta Group Company. International Label Text, Dividend Star 036 , pp. 1-6.
Koch, S. D. 1986. Cereal disease methodology manual. CIMMYT Publication, Apolopetal 6-641, Mexico.
Leroux, P. & Berthier, G. 1988. Resistance to carboxin and fenfuram in Ustilago nuda (Jens.) Rostr, the causal agent of barley loose smut. Crop Protection, 7: 16-19.
Madsen, E. & Hvelplund, N. J. 1998. Raxil RIM 035 ES., a new standard against Ustilago nuda. 15th Danish Plant Protection Conference, Markbrug. 3: 39-43, pp. 39-43.
Marthre, D. E. (Editor). 1982. Compendium of Barley Diseases. The American Phytopathological Society–Montana State University.
Padovan, S., Guarda, G., Salvadore, G., Faccini, N., Delogu, G., 1995. Barley: use of systemic fungicides in seed treatment for the control of loose smut and stripe disease. Istituto di Genetica e Sperimentazione Agraria, N. Strampelli. Lonigo,Vicenza ,Italy., 51: 32, 63 – 65 .
Sharifi-Tehrani, A. & Sepasgozarian, H. 1973. Effect of four systemic fungicides on loose smut of wheat, Ustilago tritici (Pers.) Rostr. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 9: (3-4), 95-100.
Skorda, E. A. A. 1981. Evaluation of fungicides as seed dressing againest strains of wheat bunt in Great British. Crop Protection, 7:317-323.
Tomlin, A. 2004–5, World compendium, The e–Pesticide Manual Thirteenth, CD st. Version 3.1.