اثر دما روی رشد، طول عمر و میزان پارازیتیسم زنبور Closterocerus formosus (Hym.: Eulophidae) پارازیتوئید مگس مینوز برگ سبزی Liriomyza trifolii (Dip.: Agromyzidae)

نویسندگان

چکیده

در این تحقیق تاثیر دماهای مختلف (15، 20، 25، 30 و 35 درجه سلسیوس) بر طول دوره رشد (تخم تا خروج حشره کامل)، طول عمر حشره کامل ماده و میزان پارازیتیسم زنبور Closterocerus formosus Westwood  به عنوان یکی از دشمنان طبیعی مهم  مگس مینوز برگ سبزی Liriomyza trifolii (Burges) روی گیاه لوبیا (رطوبت 5 ± 60 درصد و دوره نوری 16 ساعت روشنایی و 8 ساعت تاریکی) بررسی شد. با بالا رفتن دما طول دوره رشدی زنبور نیز کاهش می یابد به طوری که میانگین طول دوره رشدی زنبور از تخم تا خروج حشره کامل در دماهای مورد آزمایش به ترتیب 2/53، 6/27، 4/15، 6/9 و 2/7 روز بود. همین طور با افزایش دما متوسط طول عمر حشرات ماده بالغ کوتاه تر شدند. طول عمر زنبورهای ماده به ترتیب 27، 1/23، 4/22، 8/19 و 6/17 روز و تعداد میزبان های کشته شده (به وسیله پارازیتیسم و تغذیه از میزبان) به ترتیب 4/37، 8/197، 5/349، 4/324 و 5/296 عدد بدست آمد. رابطه بین دما و نرخ رشد پارازیتوئید با مدل رگرسیون خطی تطابق نشان داد. با استفاده از این مدل پائین ترین آستانه دمایی رشد زنبور 5/13درجه سلسیوس و نیاز دمایی از تخم تا ظهور حشره کامل 66/166 روز- درجه محاسبه گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of temperature on the development, female longevity and parasitism of Closterocerus formosus (Hym.: Eulophdiae), parasitoid of Liriomyza trifolii (Dip.: Agromyzidae)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shahram Hesami
  • Hadi Ostovan
  • Ebrahim Ebrahimi
  • Mahmoud Shojai
  • Karim Kamali
چکیده [English]

The effects of five constant temperature (15, 20, 25, 30 & 35 oC) on the development (egg to adult emergence), longevity of female and parasitism of eulophid wasp Closterocerus formosus Westwood, on the serpentine leafminer, Liriomyza trifolii (Burges), was studied on bean. The developmental period was decreased as temperature increased and developmental duration from egg to adult emergence at constant experimental temperatures was 53.2, 27.6, 15.4, 9.6 and 7.2 days, respectively. Also the longevity of adult females decreased as temperature increased, and in the mentioned temperatures, female longevity determined as 27, 23.1, 22.4, 19.8 and 17.6 days. Accordingly, total numbers of host killed by the parasitoid (by parasitism and host killing) were 37.4, 197.8, 349.5, 324.4 and 296.5 at constant temperatures. The relationship between temperature and the developmental rate of the parasitoid well described by linear regression model. The lower threshold temperature was estimated to be 13.5 oC and degree-day requirement for egg-adult emergence was 166.66.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Closterocerus formosus
  • Liriomyza trifolii
  • temperature
  • Longevity
  • parasitism
  • serpentine leafminer
  • threshold temperature
  • Degree-day
Asadi, R., Talebi, A. A., Fathipour, Y., Moharramipour, S. & Rakhshani, E. (2006) Identification of Parasitoids and Seasonal Parasitism of the Agromyzid Leafminers Genus Liriomyza (Dip.: Agromyzidae) in Varamin. Iranian Journal Agricultural Science and Technology, 8: 293-303.

Askari, M. (1995) Some biological aspects of Liriomyza trifolii (Dip.: Agromyzidae). Proceedings of 12th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, Karaj, 2-7 Sept. 1995, p.158.

Campbell A., Frazer B. D., Gilbert N., Gutierrez A. P., Mackauer M. (1974) Temperature requirements of some aphids and their parasites. Journal of Applied Ecology, 11: 431–438.

Chien, C. C. & Ku, S. C. (2001a) Appearance and life history of Neochrysocharis formosa (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Formosan Entomology, 21: 383- 393 (In Chinese with English abstract).

Chien, C. C. & Ku, S. C. (2001b) Instar preference of five species of parasitoids of Liriomyza trifolii (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae, Braconidae). Formosan Entomology 21: 89-97 (in Chinese with English abstract).

Chien, C. C. & Ku, S. C. (2002) Intraspecific Competition of Two Species of Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) of Liriomyza trifolii (Diptera: Agromyzidae). Formosan Entomology, 22: 279-290 (In Chinese with English abstract).

Chien, C. C., Ku, S. C. & Chang, S. C. (2005) Influence of temperature on the population increase and host-killing capability of Neochrysocharis formosa (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Plant Protection Bulletin, 47: 87-101 (In Chinese with English abstract).

Dousti, A. F. (2007) Bioediversity of leaf miners (Dip.: Agromyzidae), Bioecology of the major species and their natural enemies in Shiraz Region. Ph.D. Thesis, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research branch.

Farrokhi, Sh., Ebrahimi, E. & Nouri, P. (2004) Study on population fluctuation of Liriomyza trifolii anditsparasitoid on cucumber in Varamin region. Proceedings of 16th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, Tabriz University, 28Aug. -1Sept., 2004, p.16.

Fathipour, Y., Haghani, M., Talebi, A. A., Baniameri, V. & Zamani, A. A. (2006) Natural parasitism of Liriomyza sativae (Diptera: Agromyzidae) on cucumber under field and greenhouse conditions. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin, 29 (4): 155–160.

Fazeli, M. J. & Honarparvaran, M. A. (1995) Studies on the biology and control of Liriomyza congesta on chickpea in Fars province. Proceedings of 12th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, Karaj, 2-7 Sept. 1995, p.141.

Gilbert, N. & Raworth, D. A. (1996) Insect and Temperature, a general theory. Canadian Entomology, 128: 1-13.

Godfray, H. C. J. (1994) Parasitoids: Behavioral and Evolutionary Ecology. Princeton University Press, NJ.

Haghani, M., Fathipour, Y., Talebi, A. A. & Baniameri, V. (2007) Temperature-dependent development of Diglyphus isaea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) on Liriomyza sativae (Diptera: Agromyzidae) on cucumber. Journal of Pest Science, 80:71-77.

Harris M. A., Begley, J. W. & Warkentin, D. L. (1990) Liriomyza trifolii (Diptera: Agromyzidae) suppression with foliar applications of Steinernema carpocapsae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) and abamectin. Journal of Economic Entomology, 83: 2380–2384.

Hondo, T., Koike, A. & Sugimoto, T. (2006) Comparison thermal tolerance of seven native species of parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as biological control agents against Liriomyza trifolii (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in Japan. Appllied Entomology and Zoology, 41: 73–82.

Jones, V. P. & Parrella, M. P. (1986) Development of sampling strategies for larvae of Liriomyza trifolii (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in chrysanthemums. Environmental Entomology, 15: 268–273.

Noyes, J. S. (2008) Universal Chalcidoidea Database. Available on URL: http://www.nhm.ac.uk/entomology/chalcidoids/index.html (accessed 12-July-2008).

Parrella, M. P. (1987) Biology of Liriomyza. Annual Review of Entomology, 32: 201–224.

Parrella, M. P., Christie, G. D., Robb, K. L. & Bethke, J. A. (1982) Control of Liriomyza triifolii with biological agents and insect growth regulators. California Agriculture, 36: 17–19.

Parrella, M. P., Robb, K. L. & Bethke, J. (1983) Influence of selected host plants on the biology of Liriomyza trifolii (Diptera: Agromyzidae). Annals of Entomological Society of America, 76: 112–115.

Saito, T., Oishi, T., Ozawa, A. & Ikeda, F. (1995) Effects of temperature, photoperiod, and host plants on development and oviposition of Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) (Diptera: Agromyzidae). Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology, 39: 127–134 (In Japanese with English abstract).

Spencer, K. A. (1973) Agromyzidae (Diptera) of Economic Importance. Dr. W. Junk, The Hague, 405 pp.

Tran, D. H., Tran, T. T. & Takagi, M. (2005) Agromyzid leafminers in central and southern Vietnam: Survey of host crops, species composition and parasitoids. Bulletin of Institute Tropical Agriculture, Kyushu University, 28(1): 35-41.

Urbaneja, A., Hinarejos, R., Llacer, E., Garrido, A. & Jacas, J. A. (2002) Effect of temperature on life history of Cirrospilus vittatus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) an ectoparasitoid of Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 95: 250-255.

Van Lenteren, J. C. (1986) Parasitoids in the greenhouse: Successes with seasonal inoculative release systems. pp. 341-374. In: Waage, J. & Greathead, D. (Eds.), Insect Parasitoids. Academic Press, London.