تأثیر وجود پناگاه زمستانی زنبور Anagrus atomus (Hym.: Mymaridae) بر میزان پارازیتیسم تخم زنجرک مو Arboridia kermanshah (Hem.: Cicadellidae)

نویسندگان

چکیده

زنبور Anagrus atomus (L.) (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) پارازیتوئید تخم و از عوامل مهم مرگ و میر زنجرک مو Arboridia kermanshah Dlabola (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) در تاکستانهای اصفهان است. در این مطالعه گیاهانی که زنبور روی آنها زمستانگذرانی می کند، پراکندگی پارازیتوئید و میزان پارازیتیسم تخم های زنجرک مو در دو تاکستان طی سالهای 1379 و 1380 بررسی گردید. زنبور A. atomus زمستان را درون تخمهای زنجرک گل سرخ روی رز، نسترن و تمشک به سر می برد. در یک تاکستان که در مجاورت خود میزبانهای زمستانگذران داشت، پارازیتوئید از دهه سوم اسفند از میزبان زمستانگذران خود خارج و یک نسل را در بهار روی آنها تکمیل کرد. از ابتدای اردیبهشت و همزمان با تخمگذاری زنجرک مو، این زنبورها وارد تاکستان شدند. الگوی تشکیل کلنی و پارازیتیسم زنبور نشان داد که پارازیتوئید در تاکستانی که در مجاورت خود میزبان زمستانگذران داشت فراوان تر بود و در اوایل فصل تراکم زنبور پارازیتوئید بیش از دو برابر تاکستانی بود که میزبان زمستانگذران در اطراف خود نداشت. در اواسط فصل میزان پارازیتیسم تخم زنجرک مو در تاکستان با محلهای زمستانگذران به طور قابل توجهی بیشتر بود. پارازیتیسم تجمعی مشخص کرد که افزایش پارازیتیسم در اوایل فصل منجر به افزایش تلفات تخم های زنجرک مو توسط زنبور پارازیتوئید تخم در طول فصل می گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Impact of overwintering refugia of Anagrus atomus (Hym.: Mymaridae) on egg parasitism of grape leafhopper Arboridia kermanshah (Hem.: Cicadellidae)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shahram Hesami
  • Hosein Seyedoleslami
  • Bijan Hatami
چکیده [English]

Anagrus atomus (L.) (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) is an egg parasitoid and an important mortality factor for the grape leafhopper, Arboridia kermanshah Dlabola (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) populations in Isfahan vineyards. A study was conducted to characterize the plants in which A. atomus overwinters, dispersal of the parasitoid, and the level of parasitism of grape leafhopper eggs in two vineyards through 2000-2001. A. atomus overwinters in leafhopper eggs on rose, sweetbriar and blackberry. In a vineyard, with nearby overwintering refuges, the parasitoid emerged by mid-March from alternate hosts. It completed one generation on these alternate hosts, and then arrived in vineyard by late April, synchronized with grape leafhopper oviposition. The pattern of wasp colonization and parasitism indicated that parasitoids were more abundant in the vineyard with refuges close to it. In early spring, density of A. atomus was more than twice in this vineyard compared with vineyard with no refuges close to it. By mid season (July), A. atomus parasitism of A. kermanshah was significantly greater in the vineyard associated with refuges. Cumulative egg parasitism demonstrated that enhanced early season parasitism resulted in a better season-long increase in the mortality imposed by A. atomus on A. kermanshah eggs.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Anagrus atomus
  • Arboridia kermanshah
  • refugia
  • egg parasitoid
  • grape leafhopper
  • Lsfahan
Arno, C., Alma, A. & Arzone, A. 1987. Anagrus atomus as egg parasite of Typhlocybinae (Rhynchota: Auchenorrhyncha). Proceedings of the 6th Auchenorrhyncha Meeting, Turin, Italy, 7-11 Sept., pp. 611-615.

Cerutti, F., Baumgartner, J. & Delucchi, V. 1991. The dynamics of grape leafhopper Empoasca vitis population in Southern Switzerland and the implications for habitat management. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 1:177-194.

Corbett, A. & Rosenheinm, J.A. 1996. Impact of a natural enemy overwintering refuge and its interaction with the surrounding landscape. Ecological Entomology, 21: 155-164.

Davoodi, Z. 1980. Some morphological and bioecological studies on Edwardsiana rosae L. Appllied Entomology and Phytopathology, 48: 53-66 (In Persian with English abstract.).

Doutt, R. L. & Nakata, J. 1973. The Rubus leafhopper and its egg parasitoid: An endemic biotic system useful in grape–pest management. Environmental Entomology, 2: 381-386.

Hesami, S., Seyedoleslami, H. & Ebadi, R. 2001. Morphological notes on Anagrus atomus (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), an egg parasitoid of grape leafhopper, Arboridia kermanshah (Hom.; Cicadellidae) in Isfahan. Journal of Entomological Society of Iran, 21 (1): 51-67 (In Persian with English abstract).

Hesami, S. 2002. Egg parasitoid (Hym.; Mymaridae) of grape leafhopper, Arboridia kermanshah (Hom.; Cicadellidac) and its relation to leafhopper alternate hosts in winter refuges and its distribution in Isfahan region. M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Entomology, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, lran (In Persian with English abstract).

Huber, J.T. 1986. Systematics, biology, and hosts of the Mymaridae and Mymarommatoidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera): 1758-1984. Entomography, 4: 185-243.

Latifian, M. 1998. Bioecology and geographical distribution of a dominant grape leafhopper species in Isfahan province. M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Entomology, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran (In Persian with English abstract).

Latifian, M., Seyedoleslami, H. & Khajehali, J. 2004. Immature stages morphology, biology and seasonal population fluctuation of Arboridia kermanshah Dlabola (Hom.: Cicadellidae) in Isfahan province. Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 9: 205-216 (In Persian with English abstract).

Mostaan, M. & Akbarzadeh, G. 1995. Studies on the egg parasitoid of the grape vine leafhopper (Arboridia kermanshah). Trichogramma and other egg parasitoids. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium, Cairo, Egypt, 4-7 Oct., 1994, pp.201-202.

Murphy, B.C., Rosenheim, J.A. & Granett, J. 1996. Habitat diversification for improving biological control: Abundance of Anagrus epos (Hym.; Mymaridae) in grape vineyards. Environmental Entomology, 25:495-504.

Murphy, B.C., Rosenheim, J.A., Dowell, R.V. & Granatt, J. 1998. Habitat diversification for improving biological control: Parasitism of the western grape leafhopper. Entomological Experimentalis et Applicata, 87: 225-235.

Seyedoleslami, H. & Croft, B.A. 1980. Spatial distribution of overwintering eggs of the white apple leafhopper Typhlocyba pomaria, and parasitism by Anagrus epos. Environmental Entomology, 9: 624-628.

Triapisyn, S.V. 1998. Anagrus (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) egg parasitoids of Erythroneura spp. And other laefhoppers (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) in North America vineyards and rochards: a taxonomic review. Transactions of American Entomological Society, 124(2): 77-112.

Vidano, C. & Arzone, A. 1987. Biotaxonomy and epidemiology of Typhocybinae on vine. Proceedings of 1st workshop on leafhoppers and planthoppers of economic importance, London, 4-7 October 1987, pp. 75-88.

Walker, G.P., Zareh, N., Bayoun, I.M. & Triapisyn, S.V. 1997. Intoduction of Western Asian egg parasitoids into California for biological control of beet leafhopper, Circulifer tenellus. Pan-Pacific Entomology, 73 (4): 236-242.

Williams, D.W. 1984. Ecology of the blackberry-leafhopper-parasite system and its relevance to California grape agroecosystems. Hilgardia, 52: 1-32.

Williams, L. III & Martinson, T.E. 2000. Colonization of New York vineyards by Anagrus spp. (Hym.; Mymaridae); overwintering biology, within vineyard distribution of wasps, and parasitism of  grape leafhopper Erythroneura spp. (Hom., Cicadellidae) eggs. Biological Control, 18: 136-146.